Linked Data is a machine-readable, standard format for storing information. In linked data, each element of information to be linked is given a unique identifier, called a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). Connections between these elements are encoded using the Resource Description Framework (RDF), in which information is encoded in “triples” which include pairs of objects and the relationship between those objects. These triples are what create the interconnectedness of the data on the web, allowing for computers to extract meaningful connections across the internet, and thus integrate information from multiple disparate sources.
Google’s Schema.org uses a linked data framework to allow for semantic tagging, or meaningfully assigning identity to parts of a website in a way that other computers can use. https://schema.org/
A short explanation of linked data that outlines the basic ideas: https://www.ontotext.com/knowledgehub/fundamentals/linked-data-linked-open-data/
Defines linked open data and gives examples: https://www.w3.org/standards/semanticweb/data