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Performing Arts Health

Last updated November 1st, 2019

This is the companion site and resource guide for Musician Health: A Primer and Resource Guide, an educational publication originally created for the Texas Music Educators Association 2019 conference in partnership with the Texas Center for Performing Arts Health (TCPAH). It is now regularly updated consumer health resource maintained by the NNLM SCR in partnership with the TCPAH. 

Download the most recent version of the full booklet (PDF)

To learn more about TCPAH and the work they do, check their SCR CONNECTions webinar from earlier this year:


Editorial Board (2019-2020)

Lead Editors:

Kris Chesky, Co-Director, Texas Center for Performing Arts Health, University of North Texas 
Sajid Surve, Co-Director, Texas Center for Performing Arts Health, University of North Texas 

Senior Editors:

Stephen F. Austin, Professor, Voice & Vocal Pedagogy, University of North Texas 
Yein Lee, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine, University of North Texas 
Craig Neumann, Distinguished Research Professor, Associate DCT Clinical, University of North Texas 

Associate Editors:

Kensley Behel, Graduate Research Assistant, Performing Arts Health, University of North Texas 
Meghan Taylor, Graduate Research Assistant, Performing Arts Health, University of North Texas 


Brian Leaf, Community Engagement Coordinator, National Network of Libraries of Medicine

For more on the board and its policies, download this overview document

Reference List

  1. Zaza, Christine. “Playing-related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Musicians: A Systematic Review of Incidence and Prevalence.” Canadian Medical Association Journal. Vol.158(8) (April 1998): 1019-1025. Full text available for free via PubMed Central. 
  2. Buckley, Taylor, and Ralph, Manchester. “Overuse injuries among non-classical recreational instrumentalists.” Med Problems of Perform Artists Vol. 21(2) ( June 2006): 21:80–87.
  3. Kenny, Dianna, and Bronwen Ackermann. "Performance-related Musculoskeletal Pain, Depression and Music Performance Anxiety in Professional Orchestral Musicians: A Population Study." Psychology of Music 43, no. 1 (2013): 43-60.
  4. Zaza, Christine (1993) Prevention of Musicians' Playing-related Health Problems: Rationale and Recommendations for Action. Medical Problems of Performing Artists. Vol.8(4) (December 1993): 117-121
  5. Kok, Laura M., Karlijn A. Groenewegen, Bionka M. A. Huisstede, Rob G. H. H. Nelissen, A. Boni M. Rietveld, and Saskia Haitjema. "The High Prevalence of Playing-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (PRMDs) and Its Associated Factors in Amateur Musicians Playing in Student Orchestras: A Cross-sectional Study." Plos One 13, no. 2 (2018). Full text available for free via PubMed Central. 
  6. "TMEA Home." Texas Music Educators Association. Accessed January 15, 2019.
  7. Fry, Hunter JH. “Incidence of Overuse Syndrome in the Symphony Orchestra.” Medical Problems of Performing Artists. Vol.1(2)(June 1986):51-55
  8. Hoppmann, Richard. “Musculoskeletal Problems in Instrumental Musicians.” In: Sataloff RT, Alice G Brandfonbrener , and Richard J Lederman.  ed. Textbook of Performing Arts Medicine. 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press, (1998): pp.71-110.
  9. Lederman, Richard J, Leonard H Calabrese. “Overuse Syndromes in Instrumentalists.” Medical Problems of Performing Artists. Vol.1(1) (March 1986):7-11.
  10. Fry, Hunter JH. “Overuse Syndrome.” In: Tubiana R, and PC Amadio ed. Medical Problems of the Instrumentalist Musician. London: Martin Dunitz,(2000): pp.245-271.
  11. Miller, Staci Renne and Kris Chesky. “The Multidimensional Anxiety Theory: An Assessment of and Relationships Between Intensity and Direction of Cognitive Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety, and Self-Confidence Over Multiple Performance Requirements Among College Music Majors.” Medical Problems of Performing Artists 19, no. 1 (March 2004): 12-20.
  12. Ibid.
  13. Khalsa, Sat Bir S., Bethany Butzer, Stephanie Shorter, Kristen Reinhardt, Stephen Cope. “Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians.” Alternative Therapies 19, no. 2 (March/April 2013): 34-45. 
  14. Chang, Joanne C. “Effects of Meditation on Music Performance Anxiety.” Medical Problems of Performing Artists 18, no. 3 (September 2003): 126-130.
  15. Nagel, Julie Jaffee. “Treatment of Music Performance Anxiety via Psychological Approaches: A Review of Selected CBT and Psychodynamic Literature.” Medical Problems of Performing Artists 25, no. 4 (December 2010): 141-148.
  16. Ibid.
  17. "Health Information." National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. Accessed January 15, 2019.
  18. Kardous C, Themann C, Morata T, Reynolds, J, and Afanuh S. "Reducing the risk of hearing disorders among musicians." Cincinnati: NIOSH, Publication No. 2015–184.
  19. Aircrew Safety and Health. CIncinnati: NIOSH, 2014. 
  20. Occupational Noise Exposure: Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Revised Criteria. Cincinnati: NIOSH, 1998.
  21. Chesky, Kris. "Preventing Music-Induced Hearing Loss." Music Educators Journal 94, no. 3 (2008): 36-41.
  22. Laursen, Amy. "Addressing the NASM Health and Safety Standard through Curricular Changes in a Brass Methods Course: An Outcome Study." Medical Problems of Performing Artists 29, no. 3 (2014): 136-43.
  23. Gopal, Kamakshiv, Kris Chesky, Elizabetha Beschoner, Pauld Nelson, and Bradley J Stewart. "Auditory Risk Assessment of College Music Students in Jazz Band-based Instructional Activity." Noise and Health 15, no. 65 (2013): 246. Full text available for free.
  24. Henoch, Miriam A, and Kris Chesky, “Sound Exposure Levels Experienced by a College Jazz Band Ensemble.” Medical Problems of Performing Artists. 15, No 1. (2000): 17-23
  25. Chesky, Kris, Marla Pair, Eri Yoshimura, and Scott Landford. "An Evaluation of Musician Earplugs with College Music Students." International Journal of Audiology48, no. 9 (2009): 661-70.
  26.  “Taking Care of Your Voice.” National Institute of Health. Last Modified March 6, 2017. Accessed February 3, 2019.
  27. Welham, Nathan V. and Margaret A. Maclagan, “Vocal Fatigue: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.” Journal of Voice 17, no. 1 (March 2003): 21-33.
  28. Schiller, Isabel S., Dominique Morsomme, Angelique Remacle. “Voice Use Among Music Theory Teachers: A Voice Dosimetry and Self-Assessment Study.” Journal of Voice 32, no. 5 (September 2018): 578-584. Full text available for free.

Health Information Resources for Musicians

U.S. National Library of Medicine

Genetics Home Reference:
MedlinePlus - Anxiety:
MedlinePlus - Hoarseness:
MedlinePlus - Mental Health:
MedlinePlus - Muscle Disorders: 
MedlinePlus - Occupational Health:
MedlinePlus - Tinnitus:

National Institutes of Health

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases:
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders:
National Institute of Mental Health:

Additional Organizations

National Institute of Safety and Health (NIOSH):
World Health Organization (WHO) – Make Listening Safe Initiative: