Archive for the ‘General’ Category
Louis Sokoloff (1921-2015) was an American physician and neuroscientist whose innovative research methods and tools transformed the study of brain structure and function. During nearly six decades at the National Institute of Mental Health, he developed new experimental methods, combining techniques and mathematical descriptions from biochemistry, enzyme kinetics, and physiological studies to accurately measure cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Using radioactive 2-deoxyglucose tracers, he was able to make real-time images of living animal brains under various physiological conditions, showing which brain regions were most active at a given moment. This work, which definitively linked regional metabolic activity to particular brain functions, constituted a quantum leap for brain-mapping research. It was also rapidly adapted to positron emission tomography (PET) scanning technology, which soon became essential for studying and diagnosing brain disorders and many types of cancer. He received a Lasker Award in 1981 in recognition of this important “bench-to-bedside” translational research.
Now available from the National Library of Medicine is a selection from the papers of Dr. Sokoloff, on the National Library of Medicine’s Profiles in Science® Web site. Profiles in Science is a digital project of the Library that provides online access to archival collections of twentieth- and twenty-first century leaders in science, medicine, and public health. The Louis Sokoloff Papers Profiles in Science site features correspondence, published articles, interviews, and photographs from the Louis Sokoloff Papers held by NLM. Visitors to Profiles in Science can view, for example, photos from Sokoloff’s childhood and early career, correspondence with colleagues and students, and experimental brain images produced with the tracers he developed. An in-depth historical narrative leads to a wide range of primary source materials that provide a window into Sokoloff’s life and major contributions to neuroscience. Visitors may also view a brief chronology of Sokoloff’s life, a glossary of terms specific to the collection, and a further readings page, as well as search and browse the collection.
The National Library of Medicine is seeking candidates to apply for two important leadership vacancies, Chief of the Public Services Division and Head of the National Network Coordinating Office of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine. NLM invites applications from candidates who are looking to contribute to the Library’s programs and mission as the strategic planning process proceeds with the new director, Dr. Patricia (Patti) F. Brennan. More information can be found in the following two 13-minute videos, which briefly describe each of the programs and how to apply for a federal job.
Both jobs are posted on USAJobs.gov, and linked on the NLM Job Openings web page through September 19. Both are GS-15 level positions, with a salary range of $128,082-$160,300.
The National Library of Medicine releases new tools and updated resources on a regular basis. To easily find the latest highlights on these updates, NLM offers a number of news feeds, blogs, bulletins, and social media accounts, including:
- News from Specialized Information Services (SIS) Division: Learn about the latest updates from Outreach and Special Populations Branch, Disaster Information Management Research Center, Environmental Health and Toxicology, and more.
- NLM News and Events: View the latest announcements, press releases, videos, and links to newsletters, RSS feeds, and the professional meeting exhibit schedule for the NLM.
- NLM in Focus: This blog features detailed posts about major events, resources, and news from the NLM.
- NLM Technical Bulletin: Learn about updates to the content and user interfaces for many of the online resources from NLM, especially PubMed.
- NLM on Social Media: Follow the NLM through Twitter, Facebook, Pinterest, or join an email list to get the latest updates in your inbox. Also learn about the social media accounts and email update lists for SIS.
Two new example citations have been added to Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet], 2nd edition. In Chapter 24, Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet, section 18, “Database/retrieval system on the Internet with an edition or version,” the two new example citations are included at the bottom of the section. A link has also been created to section 18 from Chapter 21, Computer Programs on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk, as “Examples of Citations to Computer Programs (Software) on the Internet.” These changes have been recorded in the Content Updates appendix.
Five high school seniors from Biotechnology High School in Freehold, NJ, have won the 2016 National Library of Medicine History of Medicine Award for the production of the website, Henrietta Lacks: Ordinary Woman with Extraordinary Cells. Ms. Lack’s case of cervical cancer led to the discovery of the first immortal human cell line, HeLa cells. The award was announced on June 16 by National History Day (NHD) during its annual Kenneth E. Behring National History Day Contest in Washington, DC. NHD is a year-long history competition among students from around the United States and its territories. It began in October 2015 and culminated in a nationwide event on June 2016. With this award, NLM joined other federal partners such as the Library of Congress, the National Archives and Records Administration, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the Department of Agriculture, in supporting middle and high school students’ competitive historical research. Specifically, NLM supported National History Day by providing guides and pointers to NLM resources to students in junior and senior high school.
The NHD is a non-profit organization headquartered in College Park, MD, and the national competition is held on the University of Maryland campus every summer. For the students, the experience is a full-year event that begins in the fall with county and regional contents. Winners at this initial level progress to their state’s history day competition held in the spring. State finalists are invited to College Park to compete in the national competition. Each year nearly 3,000 students, parents, and teachers gather for the week-long NHD event.
The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL) has announced the 2016-2017 year of the leadership program jointly sponsored by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and AAHSL. The NLM/AAHSL Leadership Fellows Program, which focuses on preparing emerging leaders for the position of library director in academic health sciences libraries, is accepting applications through July 22, 2016. Fellows will have the opportunity to experience another library environment and to work closely with a mentor and collaboratively with other fellows and mentors. The multi-faceted program takes advantage of flexible scheduling and an online learning community. Candidates with a strong interest in pursuing a directorship in academic health sciences libraries and with leadership experience in academic health sciences libraries, hospital libraries, or other library-related settings are encouraged to apply.
The Leadership Fellows Program has been remarkably successful in helping to move well prepared leaders into AAHSL directors’ positions. Seventy-two fellows and 59 different mentors have participated in the program from 2002-2016. To date, 28 fellows have received director appointments and over 50% have been promoted to director or other positions of higher responsibility. The program brochure, which includes information on program design, schedule, and application process, is now available. More information about the program is available from Carol Jenkins, Program Director, AAHSL Future Leadership Committee.
Beginning today, Images from the History Medicine (IHM), the National Library of Medicine’s History of Medicine Division’s (HMD) online database of historical images, will be decommissioned from its current Luna Imaging platform, and formally launched in its new home in NLM’s Digital Collections, the Library’s free online resource of over 16,000 biomedical books and moving images. IHM is a collection of historical portraits, photographs, fine prints, caricatures, posters, and other graphic art that illustrates the social and historical aspects of medicine from the Middle Ages to the present. The collection covers subjects ranging from medieval medical practice to 19th century slum conditions to World War I hospitals to the international fight against drug abuse and AIDS. Now this entire image collection is more easily searchable, alongside digitized books and videos, and images can be downloaded more seamlessly. For more details, visit NLM’s Circulating Now blog.
The National Library of Medicine (NLM) will host a special presentation, He Lani Ko Luna, A Sky Above: In Losing the Sight of Land, You Discover the Stars, by Nainoa Thompson, president of the Polynesian Voyaging Society and Master Navigator. The event will take place on Monday, May 23, 2016, at 11AM ET in the Lister Hill Auditorium at NLM in Bethesda, MD. The public is invited and sign language interpreters will be provided.
Thompson will describe the Mālama Honua Worldwide Voyage and its iconic double hulled canoe, Hōkūle’a, currently on a 47,000 nautical mile journey around the world, stopping at 85 ports in 26 countries including landing in Old Town Alexandria on Sunday, May 15. Thompson will discuss the rich history of deep sea voyaging, exploration, and oceanic wayfinding, the indigenous system of orientation and navigation at sea, and the efforts to use these experiences to revitalize Native Hawaiian culture and health. He will explain the symbiotic relationships between land, sea, sky, and people, and their cultural, ecological, and personal health. Hōkūle’a figured prominently in the NLM exhibition, Native Voices: Native Peoples’ Concepts of Health and Illness. A special microsite features Native Voices Hōkūle’a content and the Washington DC Hōkūle’a-related event schedule.
Information on visiting NLM can be found at https://www.nlm.nih.gov/about/visitor.html. NLM suggests that off-campus visitors plan to arrive at NIH by 10AM for the 11AM lecture, to allow sufficient time for security processing and walking over to the NLM Bldg. 38A Lister Hill venue. The NIH campus is accessible via the Metro Red Line Medical Center station, or by driving and parking in a visitor lot.
Presentation materials, including PowerPoint slides and video recordings, from the Teaching and Learning in New Library Spaces: The Changing Landscape of Health Sciences Libraries symposium are now available. The symposium, co-sponsored by the National Network of Libraries of Medicine Middle Atlantic Region (NN/LM MAR), the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL), and the National Network of Libraries of Medicine Southeastern/Atlantic Region (NN/LM SE/A), was held on April 18 in Philadelphia, PA.
The American Evaluation Association’s Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation describes the importance of cultural competence in terms of ethics, validity of results, and theory.
- Ethics – quality evaluation has an ethical responsibility to ensure fair, just and equitable treatment of all persons.
- Validity – evaluation results that are considered valid require trust from the diverse perspectives of the people providing the data and trust that the data will be honestly and fairly represented.
- Theory – theories underlie all of evaluation, but theories are not created in a cultural vacuum. Assumptions behind theories must be carefully examined to ensure that they apply in the cultural context of the evaluation.
The Statement also makes some recommendations for essential practices for cultural competence, including the following examples:
- Acknowledge the complexity of cultural identity. Cultural groups are not static, and people belong to multiple cultural groups. Attempts to categorize people often collapse them into cultural groupings that may not accurately represent the true diversity that exists.
- Recognize the dynamics of power. Cultural privilege can create and perpetuate inequities in power. Work to avoid reinforcing cultural stereotypes and prejudice in evaluation. Evaluators often work with data organized by cultural categories. The choices you make in working with these data can affect prejudice and discrimination attached to such categories.
- Recognize and eliminate bias in language: Language is often used as the code for a certain treatment of groups. Thoughtful use of language can reduce bias when conducting evaluations.
Two recent entries on the Evergreen Blog on data visualizations and how they can show cultural bias illustrate how these principles can be applied to the evaluation of an outreach project. The first case, How Dataviz Can Unintentionally Perpetuate Inequality: The Bleeding Infestation Example, shows how using red to represent individual participants on a map made the actual participants feel like they were perceived as a threat. The more recent blog post, How Dataviz Can Unintentionally Perpetuate Inequality Part 2, shows how the categories used in a chart on median household income contribute to stereotyping certain cultures and skew the data to show something that does not accurately represent income levels of the different groups.