Skip all navigation and go to page content

NEO Shop Talk

The blog of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine Evaluation Office

Archive for the ‘Practical Evaluation’ Category

Get to Know a Community though Diffusion of Innovation (Part 2)

Friday, March 11th, 2016

two granddaughter whispering some news to their grandmother

It’s really simple. You sell to the people who are listening, and just maybe, those people tell their friends.“ — Seth Godin, marketer.

Diffusion of Innovation changed my approach to community assessment. I now focus primarily on identifying the following three things: the key problem that the program or product (the innovation) offers the target community; key community members who will benefit both from the innovation and promoting it; and the best channels for capturing the attention of the majority and laggard segments of the group.

I now purposely use the term “community” rather than “needs” assessment because you have to assess much more needs. You must learn the key components of an entire social system. A community could be faculty or students in a particular department, staff in a given organization, or an online support group of people with a challenging health condition. All of these groups fit my definition of “community” by virtue of their connectedness and ability to influence each other.

Key Evaluation Questions

No matter what type of evaluation I do, I always start with guiding evaluation questions. These questions lead my investigation and help me design data collection methods. Here are my most typical community assessment questions:

  • What problems can the innovation solve for the target audience?
  • What are their beliefs, lifestyles, and values; and will the innovation fit all three? (Marketers call these characteristics “psychographics.”)
  • Who in the group is most likely to want to use the innovation and talk about it to their friends? (These are the early adopters who fit a second category: opinion leaders.)
  • Who among the early adopters will want to work with the project team and how can we work with them?
  • Where are the best places to connect with community members?
  • What are the best ways to communicate with the larger majority?

Answering Evaluation Question

 I also have a series of steps that I usually take to gather information about my key evaluation questions.  This is my typical process:

  1. Talk to “advisors” about their ideas and their contacts. Start talking with people you know who are part of or had experience with a community. I call this group my “advisors.” They don’t have to be high-level officials, but they do need to have solid social connections. It helps if they are well liked within the target community. They will know about the daily lives of target community members, as well as the influential voices in the community. They also can help you gain access.
  2. Look at publically available data: Local media provides clues to the concerns and interests of your target community. In a town or neighborhood, newspapers and websites for television stations are good sources.  Inside an organization, you should look at public and employee relation publications to see what is on the minds of leaders and employees.
  3. Interviews with key informants: Get your advisors to recommend people they think would be early adopters and opinion leaders for your innovation. But don’t stop there. Early adopters are different from those in the “later adopter” segments. You need to talk with people from the other segments to understand how to get their attention and participation. The best way to find community members in the other segments is to ask for recommendations and introductions from the early adopters. This is called “snowball sampling.”
  4. Visit the community: More specifically, visit locations where you are most likely to connect with members of your target audience. Visit the venue of a health fair where you could exhibit.  Stop by the computer lab in an academic department where you might teach students. Check out the parking and building access at the public library or community-based organization that could host a consumer health information workshop. If your community is virtual, see if you can visit and participate with group members through their favored social media channels.
  5. Put ideas together, then present them to early adopters for feedback: If at all possible, bring together a group of early adopters and potential partners to listen to and respond to your ideas. Early adopters are the people that companies use for beta testing, so you can do the same. It may be the same people you interviewed or a different crowd (or a mix).

Other Tips

For the most part, I tend to rely heavily on qualitative methods for community assessment. Diffusion of Innovation describes how ideas spread through a system of relationships and communication channels. You need details to truly understand that system.  You need to talk to people and understand how they live. Interviews, focus groups, and site visits provide the most useful planning information, in my opinion. You may have to include quantitative data, though.  Library usage statistics might indicate the best branches for providing workshops.  Short surveys might confirm broad interest in certain services. In the end, a blend of mixed-methods gives you the best picture of a community.

The downside to mostly qualitative data collection methods is that you get an overwhelming amount of information. I like to use an information sheet that allows me to summarize information as I conduct a community assessment. A version of this worksheet is available in OERC’s Planning and Evaluating Health Information Outreach Projects Booklet 1: Getting Started with Community-Based Outreach (downloadable version available here.). See Worksheet 2 on page 19. You should see how the evaluation questions I posed above are related to this worksheet.

Final Thoughts

Seth Godin said ideas that spread are remarkable, meaning they are “worth making a remark about.” Use community assessment to find out why your innovation is remarkable and how to start the conversation.

Other Resources

If you want to see an example of a community assessment that used this process, check out this article in Public Libraries.

You also might be interested in  Seth Godin’s TEDtalk How to Get Your Ideas to Spread.

A Most Pragmatic Theory: Diffusion of Innovation and User Assessment (Part 1)

Friday, March 4th, 2016

Seven tomatoes in a row, increasing in maturity from left to right

If your work includes teaching or providing products or services to people, you are in the business of influencing behavior change. In that case, behavior change theories should be one of the tools in your evaluation toolbox. These theories are evidence-based descriptions of how people change and the factors that affect the change process. If you have a handle on these influences, you will be much more effective in gathering data and planning programs or services.

Today and next week, I’m going to talk about my go-to behavioral change theory: Diffusion of Innovations. It was introduced in the 1960s by communication professor Everett Rogers to explain how innovations spread (diffuse) through a population over time. The term innovation is broadly defined as anything new: activities, technologies; resources; or beliefs. There are a number of behavioral change theories that guide work in health and human services, but I particularly like Diffusion of Innovations because it emphasizes how social networks and interpersonal relationships may impact your success in getting people to try something new.

I use Diffusion of Innovations for most user or community assessment studies I design. Next week, we’ll talk about using these concepts to frame community or user assessment studies. This week, I want to cover the basic principles I found to be most helpful.

People change in phases

The heart of behavior change is need.  People adopt an innovation if it that solves a problem or improves quality of life. Adoption is not automatic, however. People change in phases. They first become aware and gather information about an innovation. If it is appealing, they decide to employ it and assess its usefulness. Adoption occurs if the innovation lives up to or exceeds their expectation.

Product characteristics influence phase of adoption

Five criteria impact the rate and success of adoption within a group. First, the innovation must be better than the product or idea it is designed to replace. Second, it must fit well with people’s values, needs and experiences. Innovations that are easy to use will catch on faster, as will technologies or resources that can allow experimentation before the user must commit to it. Finally, if people can easily perceive that the innovation will lead to positive results, they are more likely to use it.

Peers’ opinions matter greatly when it comes to innovation adoptions. Marketers will tell you that mass media spreads information, but people choose to adopt innovations based on recommendations from others who are “just like them.” Conversations and social networks are key channels for spreading information about new products and ideas. If you are going to influence change, you have to identify and use how members of your audience communicate with one another.

Migration of flock of birds flying in V-formation at dusk

Riding the Wave

Segments of a population adopt innovations at different rates. In any given target population, there will be people who will try an innovation immediately just for the pleasure of using something new. They are called innovators. The second speediest are the early adopters, who like to be the trendsetters. They will use an innovation if they perceive it will give them a social edge. They value being the “opinion leaders” of their communities.

Sixty-eight percent of a population comprise the majority.  The first half (early majority) will adopt an innovation once its reliability and usefulness have been established. (For example, these are the folks who wait to update software until the “bugs” have been worked out.) The other half (late majority) are more risk adverse and tend to succumb through peer pressure, which builds as an innovation gathers momentum. The last adopters are called the laggards, who are the most fearful of change. They prefer to stick with what they know. Laggards may have a curmudgeonly name, but Les Robinson of Enabling Change pointed out that they also may be prophetic, so ignore them at your own risk.

Next Step: Diffusion of Innovations and User/Community Assessment

Next week, I will show you how I develop my needs assessment methods around Diffusion of Innovation concepts. In the meantime, here are some sources that might interest you. Everett Rogers and Karyn Scott wrote an article specifically for the NN/LM Pacific Northwest Region that you can read here. Les Robinson’s article has an interesting discussion of the specific needs of the different population segments: Finally, If you want the classic text by Ev Rogers himself, here is the full citation.

Rogers EM.  Diffusion of innovations (5th ed). New York, NY: The Free Press, 2003.

Setting a Meaningful Participation Target

Friday, February 26th, 2016

Picture of people stand on each other to reach a star

I enjoyed reading an article in Public Libraries titled “The Grass Is Always Greener” by Melanie A. Lyttle and Shawn D. Walsh.  They discuss the complexities of deciding whether a program was “well attended” or “nobody came.”  Sometimes a program that seems well attended in one situation is the same as a poorly attended program in another.

I can think of a lot of times I’ve experienced this exact situation. When I was a branch manager at a public library, the program manager at the main library would ask if she could send authors to speak at our branch library.  When I said, “maybe you should send them somewhere else – we only had ten people come to the last one,” she replied “ten is a lot – ten is more than we get anywhere else.”

When I worked at the NN/LM South Central Region, in some parts of the region 30 people could be expected to attend training sessions.  In other parts of the region, we considered 6 people a successfully attended program.  These differences often corresponded to urban vs. rural, or the travel distance needed to get to the training, or whether the librarians were largely solo librarians or worked in multi-librarian organizations, or whether their institutions supported taking time off for training.  Other considerations include whether the trainers had already built an audience over time that would regularly attend the programs. Or on the other hand, whether the trainers had saturated their market and there were very few new people to learn about the topic.

So how can you decide what a good target participation level should be, or maybe more importantly, how can you explain your participation targets to your funder or parent organization?

Tying your participation level to your intermediate and long-term intended outcomes is one way to do that.  Let me give you an example of a program in Houston that was funded by the NN/LM South Central Region. The Greater Houston AHEC received funding many years ago to do an in-depth training project with a small number of seniors in the most underserved areas of Houston.  The goals were to teach these seniors how to use computers, how to get on the Internet, how to use email, and then how to use MedlinePlus and NIHSeniorHealth to look up health information.  They planned for the seniors to take 2-3 classes a week, and each class lasted several hours. It was a big commitment, but they intended for these seniors to really know how to use the Internet at the end of the series.  There were so few seniors who saw the need to learn to use computers that they had to persuade about 10 people from each location to sign up.  However, the classes were so good and the seniors so enthusiastic, that after a couple of weeks, the other seniors wanted to take classes too.  This led to a phase 2 project which included funding for a permanent computer and coffee area in a senior center where students could practice their Internet skills. There is now a third phase of the program called M-SEARCH which teaches seniors to use mobile devices to look up their health information.

At the beginning, Greater Houston AHEC may not have envisioned these specific outcomes.  However, if they were trying to convince a funder that 10 person classes were a reasonable use of the funder’s money, it might be good to show that small in-depth classes could lead to a long-term outcome like “seniors in even the poorest neighborhoods in Houston will be able to research their health conditions on NIHSeniorHealth.”  In addition, it would be important to bring in other factors, such as your intended goals for the project, for example whether you hope to have a small group of these seniors that you can train to really use the Internet for health research or whether you want to reach a lot of seniors in underserved areas to let them know that it’s possible to find great health information using NLM resources (see the Kirkpatrick Model of training evaluation for more information on evaluating your training goals).

For more on creating long-term outcomes, see Booklet 2 of the OERC’s booklets: Planning Outcomes-based Outreach Projects

Logic Model for a Birthday Party

Thursday, February 4th, 2016

Cindy and I feel that logic models are wonderful planning tools that can be used in many life events to stay focused on what’s meaningful. This blog post is an example of such a logic model.

My daughter’s birthday is coming up this week and we are having a party for her. My husband and I have quite a few friends with children about the same age as our daughter (who is turning 3).  This means that we go to birthday parties and we have birthday parties, and we are looking forward to another 15 years or so of birthday parties.  Even though we live in the 4th largest city in the country, it’s a bit of an project to come up with a place for the party.  I could see this problem stretching out into future years of Chuck E. Cheese’s and trampoline parks. Not that there’s anything wrong with those places, but we realized that for us it was time to stop the train before we went off the rails.  Looking at my own childhood, my birthday parties growing up were all at my own house. So we decided to see if we could have a party at our house and just have fun.

To make sure we had a great event and kept our heads on straight (and had something to blog about this week), I created a logic model for my daughter’s birthday party. We needed an evaluation question, which is “is it possible to have a party of preschoolers at our tiny, not-that-childproofed-house without going crazy?”

So here is the event we have planned.

Birthday Party Logic Model

If you’re new to logic models, they are planning tools that you use from right to left, starting with long-term outcomes (what you hope to see out in the future), intermediate outcomes, and short term outcomes. Then you think of the activities that would lead to those outcomes, and then inputs, the things you need in order to do the activities. (For more information on logic models, take a look at the OERC Blog category “Logic Models“).

What I’ve learned from this process is that every time I would come up with an idea about what we could do at the party, it would need to pass the test of whether or not it leads to the long-term outcome of being willing to throw parties in the house in the future – in other words if the party takes too much work or money (or it isn’t fun), we won’t remember it as an event we are likely to do again. For example, while we are inviting a person to our house to entertain the kids, we’re bringing our daughter’s music teacher from her preschool, so it should be fun for the kids that she knows from pre-school and everyone will know the music and can sing along.  Another activity that has high enjoyment and low effort is the dance party with bubbles. All toddlers love to dance, and we can make a playlist of all of our daughter’s favorite dance songs.  Adding bubbles to the mix is frosting.

The short term goals are our immediate party goals.  We would like the party to be fun for our daughter and for most of her friends (can we really hope for 100%?  Probably not, so we put 90%).  My husband and I may be a little stressed but we’re setting our goal fairly low at being relaxed 60% of the time (you’ll have to imagine maniacal laughter here).  Our intermediate goals are simply that we all can feel comfortable having our daughter’s friends over to our house in the near future. And the long term goal is to think this is a good idea to do again and again.

Wish us luck!

New Outcome Measurement Resource for Public Libraries

Friday, January 22nd, 2016

Librarian and children looking at globe in library

About six months ago Public Library Association (PLA) initiated a service called Project Outcome, that I have been following with interest. An article entitled “Project Outcome – Looking Back, Looking Forward” by Carolyn Anthony, director of the Skokie Public Library, IL was recently published in Public Libraries Online that describes the successes of libraries using this service over the past 6 months.

Project Outcome is an online resource that provides evaluation tools that are designed to measure the impact of library programs and services, such as summer reading program or career development programming. It also provides ready-made reports and data dashboards that can be used to give libraries and stakeholders immediate data on their programs’ outcomes.  And Project Outcome provides support and peer sharing opportunities to address common challenges and increase capacity for outcomes evaluation.

Here are some of the things that make me the most excited about this service:

  1. Project Outcome has managed to create a structured approach for program outcome evaluation that can be used online by public libraries of all shapes and sizes by people who have not done outcome evaluation before.  Along with tools for collecting data, the resource has tutorials and support for libraries doing outcomes evaluation for the first time.
  2. Continued support and peer sharing as an integral part of the service means that PLA is building a community of librarians who use outcome evaluation.
  3. The stories that are shared by the peers as described in the article will increase the understanding that evaluation isn’t something forced on you from outside, but can be something that helps you to create a better library and enhance the meaning of your library’s programs.
  4. This process teaches librarians to start with the evaluation question (“decide what you want to learn about outcomes in your community”) and a plan for what to do with the findings. And the process ends with successfully communicating your findings to stakeholders and implementing next steps.
  5. Lastly, I love that Project Outcome and the PLA Performance Measurement Task Force are planning the next iteration of their project that will measure whether program participants followed through with their intended outcomes.  It will be very interesting to find out how this long term outcome evaluation comes out.

I’ll end with this statement from Carolyn Anthony, who said “the opportunity to spark internal conversations and shift the way libraries think about their programs and services is what outcome measurement is all about.”

Data Party Like it’s 2099! How to Throw a Data Party

Friday, November 20th, 2015

two funny birthday dogs celebrating close together as a coupleWhat’s a “data party?” We attended a program by evaluator Kylie Hutchinson entitled “It’s a Data Party!” at the AEA 2015 conference last week in Chicago.  A data party is another name for a kind of participatory data analysis, where you gather stakeholders together, show them some of the data that you have gathered and ask them to help analyze it.

Isn’t analyzing the data part of your job?  Here are some reasons you might want to include stakeholders in the data analysis stage:

  • It allows stakeholders to get to know and engage with the data
  • Stakeholders may bring context to the data that will help explain some of the results
  • When stakeholders participate in analyzing the data, they are more likely to understand it and use it
  • Watching their interactions, you can often find out who is the person with the power to act on your recommendations

So how do you throw a data party? First of all you need to know what you hope to get from the attendees, since you may only be able to hold an event like this one time. There are a number of different ways to organize the event.  You might want to consider using a World Cafe format, where everyone works together to explore a set of questions, or you could use an Open Space system in which attendees create their own agenda about what questions they want to discuss.  Recently the AEA held a very successful online unconference using MIT’s Unhangout that could be used for an online Data Party with people from multiple locations.

The kinds of questions Kylie Hutchinson suggested asking at a data party include:

  • What does this data tell you?
  • How does this align with your expectations?
  • What do you think is occurring here and why?
  • What other information do you need to make this actionable?

At the end of the party it might be time to present some findings and recommendations that you have.  Considering the work that they have done, they may be more willing to listen.  As Kylie Hutchinson said “People support what they helped create.”

 

Group Learning about Evaluation

Friday, October 23rd, 2015

Group of young business people talking on business meeting at office.

I recently got to participate in a very successful roundtable at a library conference.  I co-moderated an evaluation roundtable entitled “Library assessment: You’ve measured your success – now how do you get people to listen?” with OU-Tulsa Schusterman Library Associate Director Katie Prentice at the South Central Chapter of the Medical Library Association Annual Meeting in Little Rock, AR.

What makes roundtables unique among educational opportunities at library conferences is that unlike presentations or papers where attendees sit and listen, in a roundtable everyone can participate. It is a moderated discussion on a given topic among the people who attend, and since anyone can chime in, learning is active instead of passive.

About 25 people attended this roundtable and enthusiastically participated in a discussion about library assessment and evaluation data. Katie and I led the discussion with questions starting from what kind of data you collect at your library and leading to what libraries do with the data and how to make it work better for them. Our goal was to use our questions to all issues and solutions to come from the attendees themselves.

As an example, when we asked the question “what would you really like to know about your library and what do you dream of finding out about your users?” one hospital librarian said that she wanted to know how doctors were using the information and how it impacted the patients. Katie Prentice asked “can anyone help her with this?” and another hospital librarian responded that she sends emails to some of her doctors to ask for a sentence or two describing how the information was used.  These sentences, when collected and analyzed, could be a powerful tool to show hospital administration the importance of the library to patient outcomes.

Other kinds of evaluation ideas that were generated from attendees at this roundtable were:

  • using heat map software to determine where people go most often on your website
  • having student workers note what pieces of furniture are being used to improve furniture types and placement in the library
  • using a product like Constant Contact or Mail Chimp to send library newsletters to the doctors and employees at hospitals with assessment data.

While not all roundtables at conferences are this successful, this roundtable demonstrated the ability of librarians brought together in a group to learn from each other and solve problems.

Creative Annual Reports

Friday, October 9th, 2015

Ah, the annual report – at its best we expect to see a glossy booklet with pie charts, short paragraphs and some quotes. At its worst it can be pages of dry text. Our main hope with annual reports is that our stakeholders and others will read them and be impressed with the successes of our organizations.

Last month I ran across the annual report from the Nowra Public Library in New South Wales, Australia, which was so compelling and understandable that over 100,000 people have viewed it on YouTube:

Photo of librarian links to Nowra library video

Since most organizations don’t have the resources to do their own music video (e.g. singers, writers, silly costumes), I thought I would look at a few other examples to consider when it’s time to do your annual report.

One of my all-time favorites is the annual report from the Schusterman Library of The University of Oklahoma-Tulsa. Their annual report is an infographic that shows the data that is collected, but also describes the data in such a way that 1) you have a better feel for what is going on in the library; and also 2) you might think “I didn’t know they would help me with that!”  For example: “7,274 Reference questions answered in person, by phone, by email, and instant message or text on everything from ADHD and child welfare to decision trees, LEED homes, and census reporting.” It is available on their website, and the librarians at the Schusterman Library say they frequently find students looking at it.

The Michigan State University College of Education won a gold ADDY and a Best in Show Award for their 2012 Annual Report (an ADDY is the advertising industry’s largest competition).  Their report featured a tri-fold, die-cut skyline that presented the college’s missions and strengths with an emphasis on “college as community.” The annual report also included a video and a website that gives detailed narratives that show institutional successes in terms of personal stories.

Of course, not all institutions want an unusual annual report.  But it is important to consider the target audience.  Annual reports reach the upper administration, potential funders, and patrons of the library. The success of this years annual report might shape the library users view of the library for years to come.

The OERC is on the Road Again

Friday, September 25th, 2015

The OERC is on the road again.  Today, Cindy and Beth Layton, Associate Director of the NN/LM Greater Midwest Region, are team-teaching Measuring What Matters to Stakeholders at the Michigan Health Sciences Library Association’s annual conference in Flint, MI.

Logo for Michigan Health Sciences Library Association

This workshop covers strategies for using evaluation to enhance and communicate a library’s value to organizational decision-makers and stakeholders who influence decision makers. The workshop combines updated information with material from the NN/LM MidContinental Region’s Measuring Your Impact and the OERC’s Valuing Your Library workshops that have been taught by a number of regional medical library staff members over the past decade.

On Saturday, Karen is presenting a brand-new workshop for the Texas Library Association’s District 8 Conference called Adding Meaning to Planning: A Step-by-Step Method for Involving Your Community in Meaningful Library Planning.

TLA District 8 Logo

The workshop is a method of involving community members in creating pain-free logic models to ensure that the long term vision is always in sight when planning.  Karen wrote a blog entry about the creating “tearless” logic models here. http://nnlm.gov/evaluation/blog/2015/04/10/tearless-logic-models/  This is Karen’s first experience creating and delivering a workshop that is purely about library evaluation.

The NN/LM travel season is about to go into full swing.  We know we aren’t the only ones out and about with presentations, trainings, and exhibits.  So safe travels. And we will see you in a week with another OERC blog post.

Which Online Survey Tool Should I Use? A Review of Reviews

Friday, September 4th, 2015

Quality survey close up with a thumbtack pointing on the word excellentRecently we faced the realization that we would have to reevaluate the online survey tool that we have been using. We thought that we would share some of the things that we learn along the way.

First of all, finding a place that evaluates survey products (like Survey Monkey or Survey Gizmo), is not as easy as going to Consumer Reports or Amazon (or CNET, Epinions, or Buzzillions).  A number of places can be found on the internet that provide reviews of surveys, but their quality is highly varied.   So for this week our project has been to compare review websites to see what we can learn from and about them.

Here are the best ones I could find that compare online survey tools:

Zapier.com’s Ultimate Guide to Forms and Surveys, Chapter 7 “The 20 Best Online Survey Builder Tools”

This resource compares 20 different online survey tools. There is a chart with a brief statement of what each survey tool is best for, what you get for free, and the lowest plan cost. Additionally, there is a paragraph description of each tool and what it does best.  Note: this is part of an eBook published in 2015 which includes chapters like “The Best Online Form Builders for Every Task.”

Appstorm.net’s “18 Awesome Survey & Poll Apps”

This review was posted on May 27, 2015 which reassures us that the information is most likely up to date.  While there are very brief descriptions, it is good for a quick comparison of the survey products. Each review includes whether or not there is a free account, if the surveys can be customized, and whether or not there are ready-made templates.

Capterra.com’s “Top Survey Software Products”

Check boxes showing the features of the different productsThis resource appears to be almost too good to be true. Alas, no date shown means that the specificity in the comparisons might not be accurate.  Nevertheless, this website lists over 200 survey software products, has separate profile pages on each product (with varying amounts of detail), and lists features that each product offers.  You can even narrow down the surveys you are looking for by filtering by feature.  Hopefully the features in Capterra’s database are kept updated for each product.  One thing to point out is that at least two fairly well-known survey products (that I know of) are not in their list.

AppAppeal.com’s “Top 31 Free Survey Apps”

Another review site with no date listed. This one compares 31 apps by popularity, presumably in the year the article was written. One thing that is unique about this review site is that the in-depth review includes the history and popularity of the app, the differences of each app to other apps, and who they would recommend the app to.  Many of the reviews include videos showing how to use the app.  Pretty cool.

TopTenReviews.com’s 2015 Best Survey Software Reviews and Comparisons

This website has the feel of Consumer Reports. It has a long article explaining why you would use survey software, how and what the reviewers tested, and the kinds of things that are important when selecting survey software. Also like Consumer Reports, it has ratings of each product (including the experiences of the business, the respondents, and the quality of the support), and individual reviews of each product showing pros and cons. Because the date is included in the review name, the information is fairly current.

This is a starting point. There are individual reviews of online survey products on a variety of websites and blogs, which are not included here.  Stay tuned for more information on online survey tools as we move forward.

 

Last updated on Monday, June 27, 2016

Funded by the National Library of Medicine under Contract No. UG4LM012343 with the University of Washington.