Policies are one way funders, publishers and institutions are encouraging and requiring data sharing. Many agencies require research data produced as part of a funded project to be made publicly available, and many have instituted requirements for data sharing and formal data management plans,
Government strategies and policies for supporting data sharing and access. In order to promote open access to research data, many government funding agencies require research data produced as part of a funded project to be made publicly available. Many agencies have instituted requirements for data sharing and formal data management plans, including NSF, NIH, NEH.
Agency plans based on the OSTP memo (as of March 2, 2015)
Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality (AHRQ)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Department of Defense (DOD)
Department of Energy (DOE)
Data management plan requirements and guidance (Department of Energy Statements on Digital Data Management)
Plan to Increase Access to Results of FDA-Funded Scientific Research
Health and Human Services (HHS) Guiding Principles and Common Approach
HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
US Department of Agriculture (USDA)
US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Manuscript Submission for VA Investigators
- Comprehensive Brief on Research Data Management Policies (2015) – prepared by Kathleen Shearer, looks at RDM policies in Canada and around the world. As well as policies, the report covers administration, implementation, costs, and challenges.
- NIH Finalized Policy on Genomic Data Sharing (2014) – Overview of the new policy that will be effective for funding applications starting on January 25, 2015. Further information in the comment: Paltoo, DN, Rodriguez, LL, Feolo, M, et al. Data Use under the NIH GWAS Data Sharing Policy and Future Directions. Nature Genetics 46, 934–938 (2014) doi:10.1038/ng.3062 Published online 27 August 2014
- Fossils, Seeds, and Space Rocks: Improving the Management of and Access to the Nation’s Scientific Collections (2014) – White House blog post that links to Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) memo that directs each Federal agency that owns, maintains, or otherwise financially supports permanent scientific collections to develop a draft scientific-collections management and access policy within six months.
- Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) – Many of the policies and initiatives regarding data came out of the OSTP. The OSTP Blog was good to follow and the Resource Library had many useful documents.
- Sage Connection had a webinar that explained SHARE and CHORUS as methods for fulfilling the requirements of the OSTP memo. Speakers from the two groups answered questions afterwards, and the answers are available here. The page includes a link to the webinar as well.
- Executive Order - Making Open and Machine Readable the New Default for Government Information (2013) – President Obama’s executive order stating that data shall be managed as an asset throughout its life cycle to promote interoperability and openness, to ensure that data are released to the public in ways that make the data easy to find, accessible, and usable.
- National Science Board Committee on Strategy and Budget Task Force on Data Policies: Statement of Principles (2011) – Statement of Principles of the National Science Board that guides the NSB’s efforts with the National Science Foundation to examine current and emerging issues associated with science and engineering data and to develop relevant policies.”
- National Research Council’s Board on Research Data – The National Research Council’s Board on Research Data reviews issues and proposes policies related to improving the management, policy, and use of digital data for science and society.
Journals’ policies for making data available to readers. Publishers may have specific requirements regarding the availability and retention of data that supports conclusions they publish.
- Joint Data Archiving Policy – A policy supported by many journals requiring that as a condition for publication, data supporting the results in a paper should be archived in an appropriate public archive.
- Nature’s policies for submitting accompanying data with publications (2013) – A condition for publication in the Nature journals is that authors make data promptly available to readers. Details about this policy and author guidelines are listed.
- PLOS' Data Policy – Blog post from 2014 explaining policy and linking to policy and FAQs.
Institutions are also implementing policies for research data management infrastructure across the entire research data lifecycle. Institutional policies and procedures might include guidelines, protocols and standards for good research data management. It is important to look into your organization’s policies around data.
- Creating a data management framework – Australian National Data Service.
- Starting the Conversation: University-wide Research Data Management Policy (2013)
- Do You Have An Institutional Data Policy? (2015) – A Review of the Current Landscape of Library Data Services and Institutional Data Policies. Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication.
- Retention of and Access to Research Data – Example Institution Data Policy from New York Univeristy. Also information on how to go about making an institutional data policy and examples of institutions with data policies.
- The Need for Research Data Inventories and the Vision for SHARE (2014) – Clifford Lynch writing in Information Standards Quarterly on the need for appropriate stewardship of data from research.
- Starting the Conversation: University-wide Research Data Management Policy (2013) – OCLC report summarizing the benefits of systematic data management planning and identifying campus stakeholders and their concerns. This report is targeted for library directors and encourages them to proactively discuss data management and points to cover to get buy-in among campus stakeholders. The report also offers points that need to be addressed and a checklist of issues.
- Implementing an Open Data Policy (2013) – A primer developed by SPARC for research funders. Addresses key issues that these organizations encounter when considering the adoption and implementation of an open data policy.
- SPARC FAQ for the Fair Access to Science and Technology Research – SPARC page with Frequently Asked Questions about the bipartisan bill, Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR) that was introduced in Congress on March 18, 2015.
- The Health Research Alliance (2013) – A group of critical, private research funders has moved quietly and steadily to make U.S. federal policies to ensure the results of scientific research are openly accessible online a reality. The Health Research Alliance, a group of 52 not-for-profit, nongovernmental funders of health research and training - including the American Cancer Society, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, and Autism Speaks - has made provisions to encourage its members to implement strong policies to make articles that report on the research that they fund openly accessible online to the public.
- Codifying Collegiality: Recent Developments in Data Sharing Policy in the Life Sciences (2104) – Policies have been effective, but still room for improvement (article in PLOS One).
- Policy Implications of Big Data in the Health Sector (2018) – From the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, an overview of health sector policy implications.