Heart disease can be deadly. In fact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that heart disease is the leading cause of death in women. The estimated prevalence is 1 in 4 female deaths is due to heart disease. The most common form of heart disease for women is coronary artery disease (CAD) but they are also at risk for coronary microvascular disease (MVD) and broken heart syndrome.
CAD increases the risk for a heart attack. This occurs when the blood flow to the heart stops due to a blockage. This prevents the heart from getting oxygen that then results in heart tissue dying or even death. During a heart attack, quick treatment is recommended and many providers urge that minutes matter. Could the gender of the physician providing treatment matter, too?
A recent review of nearly 582,000 cases than span a 19 year history revealed data that suggests the gender of the physician does matter for women seeking treatment for a heart attack. Women who have heart attacks have a higher rate of survival when their physician is also a woman. Seth Carnahan is part of the team that did the review. He said, “You have highly trained experts with life or death on the line, and yet the gender match between the physician and the patient seems to matter a great deal.”
The next time you spend time outside, you might want to check closely for ticks. Officials from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) report an increase in the number of tickborne diseases.
The most common tickborne illness is Lyme Disease, a bacterial infection resulting from a tick bite. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report that there are nearly 30,000 cases of Lyme disease reported each year. Symptoms include fatigue, fever, headache, and skin rash; however, if left untreated the disease can spread and cause additional complications.
Although Lyme Disease is the most common, other U.S. tickborne disease include:
- Borrelia mayonii
- Borrelia miyamotoi
- Bourbon virus
- Colorado tick fever
- Heartland virus
- Powassan disease
- Rickettsia parkeririckettsiosis
- Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)
- STARI (Southern tick-associated rash illness)
- Tickborne relapsing fever (TBRF)
- 364D rickettsiosis
Despite the increase the CDC states that incidences of these disease are underreported. The article in which NIH discusses the increase in tickborne disease states it is critical scientists work to develop vaccines. Read the entire article to see other NIH recommendations.
At first glance, obesity and Influenza A seem to have no correlation. A new study with multiple cohorts found that obesity prolongs the length influenza A stay in the body. Participating institutions include:
- The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
- Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance
- University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
- Nicaraguan Ministry of Health
- Sustainable Sciences Institute in Nicaragua
- University of California-Berkeley
Influenza A is an infection of the nose, throat, and lungs that is highly contagious. Symptoms last for approximately 4-7 days and typically include fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, and general body aches. The flu also causes those with chronic health conditions to experience an exacerbation in the symptoms associated with that condition. There is also a risk for complications such as pneumonia, encephalitis, meningitis, and seizures.
Over 3 flu seasons, researchers monitored 320 households in Nicaragua. Their findings show that it took those who are obese 1.6 days longer to shed the virus compared to those who are not obese. They suggested that this could be to the inflammation that obesity causes. They plan to continue to research this topic and began to examine if reducing obesity could be a potential deterrent in future spread of disease.
As parents and caregivers around the country start to adjust to back to school routines, students are also adjusting. One area that impacts students as they return to the classroom is sleep. How much sleep should your student be getting? What are the benefits of getting a good night of sleep? What are the risks of not getting enough sleep?
Sleep is essential to helping one feel rested, healthy and assists with processing new information. There are 5 stages of sleep and quality rest through all 5 stages is necessary for a healthy sleep. The brain cycles through all the stages while we sleep and each stage produces a different biological response and benefit. The stages are stage 1, 2, 3, 4, and rapid eye movement (REM).
This leads us back to the question of how much sleep is enough. Although there are several factors that impact this number, the general recommendations are:
- Newborns:16-18 hours a day
- Preschool-aged children:11-12 hours a day
- School-aged children:At least 10 hours a day
- Teens:9-10 hours a day
- Adults (including the elderly):7-8 hours a day
It is also recommended that regardless of age, establish a bedtime routine designed to encourage healthy sleep habits. Tips for achieving a healthy bedtime routine include:
- Stick to a bedtime, and give your kids a heads-up 30 minutes and then 10 minutes beforehand.
- Include a winding-down period in the routine.
- Encourage older kids and teens to set and maintain a bedtime that allows for the full hours of sleep needed at their age.
The risk of not getting enough sleep can produce an impact on your health. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states insufficient sleep has been linked to the development and management of a number of chronic diseases and conditions, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and depression.
Millennials likely grew up most familiar with the Food Pyramid. When the USDA released the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the visual food guide was updated in 2011 to MyPlate as a more eye-catching and less complicated model for healthier eating.
Take a look at this side-by-side comparison:
Others may be aware that these guidelines have also taken other iterations in the past. In the 1940s and then again in 1984, there have been circular diagrams or “wheels” – the former including butter and margarine as a recommended food group!
But as our understanding of health and nutrition increases, so does the approach to recommending foods. Since 1980, dietary guidelines for consumers have been informed by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, a policy document for professionals. For instance, it informs:
- The National School Lunch Program
- The Older Americans Act Nutrition Program
- Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC)
The 2015-2020 guidelines suggests health eating as “not a rigid prescription, but rather, an adaptable framework in which individuals can enjoy foods that meet their personal, cultural, and traditional preferences and fit within their budget.” It offers the following limits as part of its key recommendations:
- Consume less than 10 percent of calories per day from added sugars
- Consume less than 10 percent of calories per day from saturated fats
- Consume less than 2,300 milligrams (mg) per day of sodium
- If alcohol is consumed, it should be consumed in moderation—up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men—and only by adults of legal drinking age
For more information on the Dietary Guidelines, visit the following site: https://www.cnpp.usda.gov/dietary-guidelines
For helpful handouts and other resources related to nutrition, visit the MedlinePlus topical page on nutrition.
Happy World Breastfeeding Week!
According to the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA), World Breastfeeding Week was created to bring awareness and focus to how breastfeeding helps prevent malnutrition, ensures food security in times of crisis, and is a part of breaking the cycle of poverty.
This awareness week takes place from today August 1st to Tuesday August 7th. In addition to WABA, the World Health Organization (WHO), and UNICEF are all showing support for breastfeeding to promote the public’s health. The objectives for this year’s awareness week are to inform, anchor, engage, and galvanize.
The hashtag being used on social media to bring awareness is #WBW2018.
This year marks the 70th anniversary of the landmark Framingham Heart Study. It is named for the town of Framingham, MA from which the original cohort (there are now six groups of participants) of 5,209 men and women were recruited.
Heart disease is the number one cause of death in the United States, and it achieved that rank by the 1940s. But for many at the time, it was considered unavoidable consequence of getting older. Fortunately, in 1948, President Harry Truman signed into law the ‘National Heart Act’ which did two things:
- Established the National Heart Institute, better known today at the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
- Allocated funds for a twenty-year epidemiological heart study
Its milestones over the years have been significant and numerous – here are just a few:
- In 1967, it was discovered that physical activity reduced the risk of heart disease
- In 1988, HDL or “good” cholesterol was found to reduce risk of death
- In 2002, obesity was determined as a risk factor for heart failure
To learn more, you can read a history published in 2014 that details its origins and contributions, including the fact that this study was closely linked to the health of President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
To celebrate the anniversary, Daniel Levy, M.D., Director, Framingham Heart Study, and Chief of the Population Sciences Branch, NHLBI, gave a recorded talk earlier this year.
Baseball season is in full swing and ballparks across the country are serving up a classic ballpark favorite – hot dogs. In fact, it is estimated that baseball fans alone will con
sume nearly 19 million hot dogs in 2018. Could they be getting more than they bargain for with this ballpark food choice?
A recent John Hopkins Medicine study collected data between 2007 and 2017 from 1,101 people with and without psychiatric disorders. Their study found that those who had been hospitalized for mania were more than three times as likely to have had a history of eating cured meat as those without a psychiatric disorder.
Although hot dogs are nitrate-curated, they aren’t the only food item that falls into this category. Beej jerky, salami, and other processed meats are also included. Curating meats with nitrates is not a new process and neither are its associated health issues. In the past, curated meats have been linked to colorectal cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.
While the study did not address cause and effect, it could have an impact on future interventions, according to lead author Robert Yolken, M.D., the Theodore and Vada Stanley Distinguished Professor of Neurovirology in Pediatrics at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. “Future work on this association could lead to dietary interventions to help reduce the risk of manic episodes in those who have bipolar disorder or who are otherwise vulnerable to mania.”
If you were to ask someone what they know about the effects of LSD or MDMA, their response would not likely include reduction of depression and anxiety. However, if you were to ask that same question to a team of scientists at the University of California, Davis, they might give you a “maybe!”
This UC Davis team is exploring the impact that psychedelic drugs have on the brain, specifically the structure and function of neurons. Findings suggest that changes caused by these drugs can repair the circuits that are malfunctioning in mood and anxiety disorders.
“People have long assumed that psychedelics are capable of altering neuronal structure, but this is the first study that clearly and unambiguously supports that hypothesis,” said David Olson who is leading the research team.
These discoveries could potentially create new methods for treating mood and anxiety disorders that are safer and act faster.
Living through a traumatic event such as a hurricane can result in damage to structures, belongings, and even your mental health. Studies after Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Sandy examined the mental impact of experiencing a natural disaster traumatic event. In addition to short term distress, some survivors even experience Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
PTSD is a mental illness that can cause sufferers to have difficulty sleeping, angry outburst, uncontrollable feelings of guilt or sadness, and possibly even suffer flashbacks. Although initial studies on PTSD focused on soldiers experiencing war, more recently it has been accepted that any trauma (sexual assault, physical abuse, natural disasters, etc) can result in PTSD.
Common reactions to disaster can include:
- Intense or unpredictable feelings.
- Changes to thoughts and behavior patterns.
- Sensitivity to environmental factors.
- Strained interpersonal relationships.
- Stress-related physical symptoms.
Texans Recovering Together provides crisis counseling and referrals to hurricane survivors who might be experiencing some of these common reactions. Their services are free and confidential. If a client is not comfortable meeting in an office or has transportation issues, their providers can do home visits or meet in a community setting.
The Counties covered under this program and additional disaster behavioral health resources can be found at www.hhs.texas.gov/disaster-assistance. For further information on Hurricane Harvey and Texas recovery, visit the Hurricane Harvey disaster web page at www.fema.gov/disaster/4332, Facebook at www.facebook.com/FEMAharvey, the FEMA Region 6 Twitter account at www.twitter.com/FEMARegion6 or the Texas Division of Emergency Management website at https://www.dps.texas.gov/dem.
A recent study found that over 50% of patients who had been catheterized reported complications from indwelling catheters. This statistical evidence confirms that anecdotal evidence that patients have shared with hospital staff, friends, and family members for years.
A urinary catheter is used to drain the bladder when the body is unable to do so naturally. It consists of a small tube inserted into the body. There are 3 main types of catheters: Indwelling, condom, and intermittent. This study focused on indwelling catheters which are left in the bladder for a period of time.
Catheters are typically used for the following health situations:
- Urinary incontinence
- Urinary retention
- Surgery or trauma on the prostate or genitals
- Medical conditions such as dementia, spinal cord injury, or multiple sclerosis
Although catheters are often deemed medically necessary, one of the study’s authors warns against using them too often or for too long. “”Our findings underscore the importance of avoiding an indwelling urinary catheter unless it is absolutely necessary and removing it as soon as possible,” said Dr. Sanjay Saint.
The study found increased risk of infection, negative impact on activities of daily living, and other complications such as ongoing pain and discomfort. Learn more about the findings and recommendations for improvement by reading the entire article.
Researchers from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have found a lipid naturally produced by the body is capable of reducing inflammation caused by a specific bacteria and virus.
The bacteria being studied is Francisella tularensis (tularemia), a life-threatening disease that can be difficult to diagnose. It is typically spread to humans through the bite of a tick, mosquito, or deer fly. Once a diagnosis is confirmed, the disease can be successfully treated with antibiotics.
Dengue fever is spread by mosquitoes. It is not life threatening like tularemia but there is not a specific method of treatment for it. Symptoms include severe headache and general body pain.
Both tularemia and dengue fever have a component of inflammation that scientists believe could be reduced by phosphatidylethanoloamine (PE) which is a lipid. A lipid, or fat, is a nutrient that provides the body with energy and assists with vitamin absorption. This reduction in inflammation has already been proved in cell-culture experiments.
To learn more about the study and findings, read the entire NIH press release.
It’s July and that means high temperatures and oppressive humidity for a good portion of our country. The temperature can be uncomfortable, but it can also be downright risky to your health!
Sweat is your body’s way of cooling itself but in high temperature with added humidity, sometimes this mechanism isn’t effective enough. Illnesses related to heat include stroke, exhaustion, cramps, and skin rash.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have some great recommendations to avoid heat-related illnesses.
- Stay Cool! Wear appropriate clothing and apply sunscreen. Be cautious when scheduling outdoor activities and make sure to pace yourself when you are active. Stay indoors or take often breaks inside a cool structure.
- Stay Hydrated! Drink plenty of fluids and replace nutrients that your body sweats out.
- Stay Informed! Pay attention to health/weather alerts and know the signs of heat related illness.
While you may not be able to beat the heat, you can certainly make sure the heat doesn’t beat you!
Testing on mice has shown that partial hearing can be restored using drug therapy. Researchers at the National Institutes of Health and the University of Iowa have been studying a molecular mechanism that underlies a form of deafness named DFNA27. Their findings suggest that a new treatment option might be available for people who are impacted by deafness.
Chief of the Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics at the National Institute of Deafness and other Communication Disorders, and a coauthor of the study, Thomas B. Friedman, Ph.D said, “We were able to partially restore hearing, especially at lower frequencies, and save some sensory hair cells.” He went on to add, “If additional studies show that small-molecule-based drugs are effective in treating DFNA27 deafness in people, it’s possible that using similar approaches might work for other inherited forms of progressive hearing loss.”
This is welcome news for the nearly 50 million Americans who suffer from some form of hearing loss. According to the CDC, hearing loss is the third most common chronic physical condition and is twice as prevalent as diabetes or cancer.
Read the entire press release to find out the specifics of the study.
The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) has developed a biomagnetic technique that can assess the health of a fetus in the third-trimester. Specifically, it looks at the brain and heart heath of fetuses who have been exposes to opioids.
A recent pilot study compared a group of women who had been exposed to an opioid versus a group of women who had not been exposed. Researchers acquired the data noninvasively by using the SARA (SQUID-Array for Reproductive Assessment) device developed by UAMS researchers.
Two of the doctors involved in the study feel the ability to assess fetus health without invasive measures might have the potential to change standard of care in the future. “A biomagnetic device such as SARA could help to understand the impact of buprenorphine on the clinical care of pregnant women with opioid use disorder as well as care of their exposed children,” Diana Escalona-Vargas, PH.D. said.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report that babies born with health issues due to opioid exposure has increased substantially over a 15-year stretch. Dr. Jessica Coker added, “For pregnant women, studies like these can help us identify babies who may be at higher risk for negative outcomes such as neonatal abstinence syndrome.”
To learn more about the impact opioids can have on fetal health and treatment options, visit the National Institute on Drug Abuse website.
Bipolar Disorder is a mental illness that causes those that have it to experience unusual mood changes. An individual will bounce between manic phases in which they feel happy and active to depression phases where they feel sad and hopeless.
With growing evidence pointing toward gut health and inflammation playing a role in a variety of health conditions, researchers at John Hopkins University School of Medicine launched an interesting study. The study was designed to determine if probiotics could help discharged patients avoid rehospitalization
The findings of the JHU study showed that those treated with probiotics were rehospitalized significantly less than those in the placebo group. Those that did require rehospitalization required substantially less time in the hospital than those in the placebo group. Although the results could change future treatment options the data is new and the sample size was small.
Read the entire study here.
According to a recent article in Harvard Health, people tend to lose bone mass at a rate of 1% per year after age 40. This can result in osteoporosis, with even simple activities such as bending over to tie a shoelace becoming a potential risk for a fracture.
Unfortunately, at least in my networks, aerobic exercise, let alone strength training, is often talked about as more of a lifestyle option rather than necessary for health. But both are important for delaying bone loss and improving bone health.
- 150 minutes (2 hours and 30 minutes) each week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity (such as brisk walking or gardening)
- 75 minutes (1 hour and 15 minutes) each week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity (such as jogging or swimming laps)
- An equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity
Additionally, they also recommend muscle strengthening exercises using weights or bands two or more times a week.
However, a study done by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion researchers in 2008 found that only a third of older adults (defined as greater or equal to 65) actually meet these guidelines and less than a sixth (14.1%) met muscle-strengthening guidelines.
While habits are harder to form the older one gets, it’s never too late (or early to start). The National Institute on Aging at NIH designed a physical activity campaign called Go4Life. It’s divided into three phases:
- Get Ready – becoming motivated and learning about the importance of exercise and diet
- Get Set – figuring out where to start or restart your exercise program by setting goals and planning
- Go! – tracking your activities and building it into your daily life (e.g. signing up for weekly coaching tips via text)
Exercises are divided into four types (Endurance, Strength, Balance, and Flexibility) and participants are encouraged to integrate all four into their routine. The website provides instructions on how to complete these activities, downloadable templates for tracking progress, and both educational and motivational materials you can order for free.
Always consult a doctor before starting a new exercise program. Learn more and get started at https://go4life.nia.nih.gov/
The World Health Organization has released the newest version of the International Classification of Diseases, ICD-11. The ICD tracks health trends and statistics globally. The nearly 55,000 unique codes identify injuries, diseases, symptoms, and causes of death. These codes are the common language that health care professionals use to share information worldwide.
This new version of ICD has been in progress for several years and involved a large team of contributors. Due to the scope of the project, it will not start being used until 2022. This will allow time for users to familiarize themselves with the new product and prepare for implementation.
One new feature that is being touted as user friendly is a fully electronic version of the product which is a first for ICD. There are also new chapters that include traditional medicine and sexual health. The sexual health chapter is most notable for reclassifying transgender so that is no longer a mental health condition. Another well publicized addition to ICD-11 is gaming disorder is now listed as an addictive disorder.
WHO’s Assistant Director-General for Health Metrics and Measurement, Dr Lubna Alansari, says: “ICD is a cornerstone of health information and ICD-11 will deliver an up-to-date view of the patterns of disease.”
The National Institute of Health and the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health have released a great health resource that is available instantly at your fingertips! The mobile app HerbList is available for free on the Apple store and on Google Play.
HerbList was designed to give consumers access to information about popular herbs and herbal supplements quickly and easily on mobile devices. Users can access information about the safety and effectiveness of herbal products. They can also link to additional resources for more information and mark favorite herbs to quickly view them again and access them offline.
“Providing an app for users is part of NCCIH’s effort to inform consumers and health care providers within the complementary and integrative health space. People are considering herbs and herbal supplements for various reasons, and it is important that they are aware of what the research says about safety and effectiveness ” said David Shurtleff, Ph.D., acting director of NCCIH.
Another great resource for Herbs and Supplements is MedlinePlus’ Herbs and Supplements webpage.
When I was in grade school, it seemed as if nearly every kid would miss a week of school to have their tonsils removed. They would return to school bragging about their recovery spent eating ice cream, drinking milkshakes, and watching cartons. I can almost acutely recall being jealous of these classmates. After reading new research that evaluates the long-term health risks of tonsillectomies, I realized maybe I shouldn’t have been quite so jealous!
Tonsils are located at the back of the throat. These are knobs of tissue with one located on either side. Tonsils are part of the lymphatic system which works to clear infections and keep the balance between body fluids. Specifically, the tonsils, in concert with the adenoids, work by preventing germs from coming in through the mouse and nose.
A tonsillectomy is a procedure to remove the tonsils. This is typically recommended for those that suffer from recurrent infections of the tonsils or when the tonsils are enlarged enough that they obstruct breathing. For adults, the tonsils are occasionally removed when there is concern for a tumor.
Over half a million tonsillectomies are performed annually in the United States but little research has been done to determine the long-term health risks associated with this procedure. A new study released by the University of Melbourne is the first to look at potential risks. Their results suggest that individuals who undergo a tonsillectomy are at 3x the risk of their counterparts for diseases of the upper respiratory tract such as asthma, influenza, pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – COPD.
Read the entire study findings to learn more.