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SEA Currents

Newsletter of the NN/LM Southeastern/Atlantic Region

Archive for the ‘For The Region’ Category

Finding an Evidence-Based Medicine Study in PubMed

Thursday, July 31st, 2014

Written by Tony Nguyen, Outreach/Communications Coordinator, National Network of Southeastern/Atlantic Region

Contact Tony at: tnguyen@hshsl.umaryland.edu

If you’re familiar with Evidence-Based Medicine, you are aware of the acronym PICO. For those unfamiliar with the term, it is a convenient way to organize a well-built and answerable clinical question. This is important for medical and health professionals in formulating a search strategy prior to investigating the vast amount of available medical and scientific literature. PICO is broken down as follows:

          P Patient, Population, or Problem
          I Intervention, Prognostic Factor, or Exposure
         C Comparison, Control, Context, or Intervention (if appropriate)
         O Outcome you would like to measure or achieve
        (T) Time, Therapy, or Type of Article (This could be optional)

As you become more familiar with PICO, note the different types of studies available within medical literature: Therapy, Diagnosis, Prognosis, Etiology, Prevention, and Quality Improvement. Once the study type is determined, choose the best study design or methodology to address a clinical question.

     Type of Question      Best Type of Study/Methodology
     Therapy
  • Systematic Review
  • Meta-Analysis
  • Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial
     Diagnosis
  • Controlled Trial
     Prognosis
  • Cohort Studies
  • Case Control Studies
  • Case Series
     Etiology
  • Cohort Studies
  • Case Control Studies
  • Case Series
     Prevention
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Cohort Studies
     Quality Improvement
  • Randomized Controlled Trials

After using PICO to determine an answerable clinical question and the potentially highest level of study to look for, the next step is to search PubMed for the various studies. How do you locate each of the different studies?

A simple search in PubMed allows access a side bar of options to target specific article types.

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Scrolling through these options, you’ll locate Case Reports, Comparative Studies, Guidelines, Meta-Analyses, Randomized Controlled Trials, and Systematic Reviews. Selecting these study types prior to executing a search string may cause confusion when they disappear in PubMed results. It simply means that your search string located Randomized Controlled Trials but no Systematic Reviews, for example.

Publication Type [PT] is another option in locating both study characteristics and publication types. A full list of Publication Characteristics (Publication Types) can be found here: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/pubtypes2006.html.

Examples of Study Characteristics within Publication Type [PT]
  • Case Reports
  • In Vitro
  • Clinical Conference
  • Meta-Analysis
  • Clinical Trial +
  • Multicenter Study
  • Comparative Study
  • Scientific Integrity Review
  • Census Development Conference
  •  Twin Study
  • Evaluation Studies
  •  Validation Studies

Utilizing MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) is another way to locate studies not retrieved when searching for a Publication Type or Study Characteristic. These items are not listed within the filters or the [PT] field. In MeSH, you’ll be able to locate:

  • Crossover Studies
  • Cohort Studies
  • Random Allocation
  • Placebos
  • Treatment Outcome

Knowing that “Cohort Studies” is a MeSH term will give you the chance of locating the potential Prognosis, Etiology, and Prevention studies not found in the Article Type or [PT] section. Try searching with MeSH if you’re having a difficulty locating an article type or characteristic.

Finally, one last option would be to add a keyword within the search string and look at the “Search Details” section to see how PubMed interpreted the keyword entry.

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Locating a particular study or study type characteristic can be tricky in PubMed. However, we’re happy to provide tips and suggestions to help you navigate PubMed and other NLM resources. If your organization is interested utilizing PubMed to locate evidence-based medicine resources, NN/LM SE/A is pleased to offer PubMed and the Evidence-Based Universe. This course is available as a 2 hour and 4 hour course. To schedule this course, please contact Tony Nguyen at tnguyen@hshsl.umaryland.edu.

 

 

 

Register for the PubMed® for Trainers Class – It’s free!

Tuesday, July 29th, 2014

Offered by the

National Library of Medicine Training Center (NTC)

and the National Library of Medicine (NLM)

I would highly recommend this course to anyone who teaches PubMed.”

“You all did an amazing job of (1) modeling instructional design by providing a very well-designed course; and, (2) demonstrating how online instructional environments can still provide engaging learning experiences.”

“I really learned a lot of new information about how to search PubMed and good ideas for how to best teach that to my students.

–Comments from recent “PubMed for Trainers” participants

 

Would you like to gain new skills, brush up on existing PubMed skills and collaborate with colleagues to help create effective training strategies? The NTC is offering PubMed® for Trainers (PMT) in two locations of interest to our region: at the University Of Tennessee Health Science Center in Memphis, TN (in November 2014) and at the National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD (in October 2014).

PMT is held in 4 sessions; 3 online and 1 in person session (attendance in all is expected). The last of the four sessions is an in-person class.

This hands-on course consists of 9 presentations created by the National Library of Medicine, live demonstrations, hands-on exercises, group work and discussions, and networking opportunities over the course of four sessions. You can expect an additional 2-3 hours of independent homework. Upon completion of the class, participants receive 15 hours of MLA CE credit.

By the end of the course, you should:

  • Have a functional knowledge of the MEDLINE® database
  • Understand behind the scenes details of how PubMed translates your search
  • Know how to use Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
  • Increase your knowledge of how to more effectively search for drugs, diseases, and patient centered research.

The dates and times for the four class sessions for the Bethesda location are:

  1. Tuesday, October 21, 2014, 11 am – 1 pm ET (online via Adobe Connect)
  2. Thursday, October 23, 2014, 11 am – 1 pm ET (online via Adobe Connect)
  3. Tuesday, October 28, 2014, 11 am – 1 pm ET (online via Adobe Connect)
  4. Thursday, October 30, 9 am -4:30 pm ET (in-person in Bethesda, MD)

The dates and times for the four class sessions for the Memphis location are:

  1. Monday, October 20, 2014, 10 am – 12 noon CT (online via Adobe Connect)
  2. Monday, November 3, 2014, 10 am – 12 noon CT (online via Adobe Connect)
  3. Monday, November 10, 2014, 10 am – 12 noon CT (online via Adobe Connect)
  4. Thursday, November 13, 9 am -4:30 pm CT (in-person in Memphis, TN)

For more information and to register, visit http://nnlm.gov/ntcc/classes/class_details.html?class_id=359.

Understanding Population Health and Librarian Support

Tuesday, July 22nd, 2014

Written by Terri Ottosen, Consumer Health Coordinator, National Network of Libraries of Medicine, Southeastern/Atlantic Region.

Contact Terri at: tottosen@hshsl.umaryland.edu

An interesting new buzzword is intriguing me lately. It’s called population health, and the term has been around for over 10 years. The American Public Health Association defines it as “the health outcomes of a group of individuals, including the distribution of such outcomes within the group.” David Kindig and Greg Stoddart wrote an article in March 2003, published in the American Journal of Public Health that discussed the relatively new term and the fact that it hadn’t yet been precisely defined. (http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.93.3.380) They argued that “the field of population health includes health outcomes, patterns of health determinants, and policies and interventions that link these two.” Many health organizations now have divisions or projects in population health management and researchers are increasingly giving their attention to population health and the opportunities it provides for improving the U.S. health care system, including costs and individual experiences of care.

In a publication by Academy Health, “Population Health in the Affordable Care Act Era,” Michael A. Stoto, Ph.D., writes about the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) and the implications for addressing population health. He believes that it addresses it in four ways: one, the provisions to expand insurance coverage aim to improve population health by improving access to the health care delivery system, which is critical to any community’s health. Second, it aims to improve the quality of care delivered. Third, a less well-known provision of the ACA, seeks to enhance prevention and health promotion measures within the health care delivery system. Finally, the fourth provision aims at promoting community- and population-based activities, including the establishment of the National Prevention, Health Promotion and Public Health Council, which has already produced the mandated National Prevention Strategy (DHHS 2011) as well as a new Prevention and Public Health Fund (authorized at $1 billion in fiscal year 2012) and funding for Community Transformation Grants (https://www.academyhealth.org/files/AH2013pophealth.pdf).

Much of the literature is focused on the education and roles of public health professionals, but I believe health sciences and public librarians can play a part in the education of the public and health sciences students by integrating and exploring partnerships and through information and health literacy training. All efforts should work toward the ultimate goal of an engaged, healthy, and knowledgeable patient population. Librarians can demonstrate and provide training on using resources for comparative effectiveness or “how to read a study” and critical appraisal. I think consumers can be trained to critically evaluate items they hear in the news or when they are researching treatment options. Classes are available from the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, Southeastern Atlantic Region (http://nnlm.gov/sea/training), both in-person and online for anyone wanting to know more about reliable health information resources.

I recently read an article about a new analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), published in the American Journal of Medicine. This article reveals that in the past 20 years, there is a sharp decrease in physical exercise and an increase in average body mass index (BMI), while caloric intake remains steady. Investigators theorized that a nationwide drop in leisure-time physical activity may be responsible for the upward trend in obesity rates. This comes on the heels of many recent media reports that caution people about the dangers of sitting too much (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3404815/). One takeaway of the research article is that increased caloric intake is often blamed for rising rates of obesity. There are no direct associations found in this study, but rather a trend over time that lack of physical activity correlates with high BMI numbers in America. (http://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(14)00191-0/abstract)

As we increasingly hear and read these studies, more evidence and important information relevant to our overall individual health will result. This makes me ponder, how can we as librarians and information professionals be involved? What should our roles be within our institutions and what are the implications for outreach? The results of these studies are interesting. To me, they suggest that “we” should focus on movement and exercise more and emphasize the benefits of physical activity. The NN/LM SE/A has received some fantastic funding proposals in the last couple of years that incorporate movement and fitness into their programming and training. (http://nnlm.gov/sea/funding/projects.html) I think this is a step towards improving the health of our communities and institutions.

 

Save the Dates: 2015 “A Librarian’s Guide to NCBI” Course

Thursday, July 17th, 2014

“This course was a great idea and very well executed! I learned a lot and am much more confident going back to my institution and teaching these resources as well as starting an information service. It’ll take time to become proficient but this was a great start!”

“The singularly most useful and interesting class I’ve taken in years.”
               – Comments from recent class participants

Attention health science librarians in the United States who wish to initiate and/or extend bioinformatics services at your institution! The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and the NLM Training Center (NTC) will be offering “A Librarian’s Guide to NCBI” course in 2015. Participants who complete the class will be eligible for Medical Library Association (MLA) Continuing Education credits. The course is free, but travel costs are at the expense of the participant.

There are two parts to the course, and applicants must take both parts:

  • Part 1: “Fundamentals in Bioinformatics and Searching” is a six-week, online (asynchronous) pre-course.
  • Part 2: A five-day in-person course offered on-site at the National Library of Medicine in Bethesda, Maryland.

Important Dates:
Monday, September 29, 2014 – Watch for a detailed announcement about the course and application process in the NLM Technical Bulletin.
Monday, November 17, 2014 – Application deadline
Monday, December 15, 2014 – Acceptance notifications e-mailed
Monday, January 12, 2015 – “Fundamentals in Bioinformatics and Searching” pre-course begins
Monday, March 9, 2015 – “A Librarian’s Guide to NCBI” five-day in-person class begins at NLM

Mark your calendars for this training opportunity.

Questions?  E-mail ntc@utah.edu.

July Issue of NIH News in Health available

Tuesday, July 8th, 2014

NIH News in Health: A monthly newsletter from the National Institutes of Health, part of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services
Check out the July issue of NIH News in Health, the monthly newsletter bringing you practical health news and tips based on the latest NIH research:

Family having fun in the shade at the beach.

Sun and Skin
The Dark Side of Sun Exposure
Sunlight is essential to many living things, but it also has a dangerous side. The good news is you can take simple steps to protect your skin from sun damage.
Read more about sun and skin. 

 

 

 

Man takes food from refrigerator.Fight Off Food Poisoning
Food Safety for Warmer Weather
It can be hard to keep foods safe to eat during warmer weather. Learn how to handle food properly to avoid the misery of food poisoning.
Read more about food poisoning. 

 

 

 

Health Capsules:

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Last updated on Friday, 22 November, 2013

Funded by the National Library of Medicine under contract HHS-N-276-2011-00004-C with the Health Sciences and Human Services Library of the University of Maryland