Archive for the ‘Search Tools’ Category
William G. Harless, President and CEO of Interactive Drama Inc. and former National Library of Medicine employee and contractor, passed away this past May. Dr. Harless’ contributions to the NLM were many, including the creation of the first voice-activated interactive video patient simulation model in the mid-1980s. As Director of NLM’s Technological Innovations in Medical Education (TIME) Project, he received the 1986 NLM Regents Award for Scholarship or Technical Achievement and an award in the category of Best Educational Achievement at the University of Nebraska, both for the development of his model which combined voice recognition, interactive video, and computer technologies.
Bill Harless held a PhD degree in psychology and learning theory. He also had held faculty positions at five major universities and the Union for Experimenting Colleges and Universities, where accredited doctorate degrees are awarded from a multidisciplinary, experientially based curriculum. He developed the first natural language computer patient simulation model at the University of Illinois School of Medicine in Chicago in the early 1960s. Dr. Harless published over 50 articles on natural language interactive simulation as a learning strategy and was a recognized expert in the field. In 1991, he was awarded a patent for his voice-controlled video simulation model. He was awarded a second patent in 1996 for his dynamic prompting system. In 2005, a third patent was awarded on a method of distributing his model over a computer network, and in 2010 he was awarded a patent for his method for analyzing natural language text to yield a meaningful response to a free-speech inquiry.
The National Library of Medicine is pleased to announce the launch of MeSH on Demand, a new feature that uses the NLM Medical Text Indexer (MTI) to find MeSH terms.
Currently, the MeSH Browser allows for searches of MeSH terms, text-word searches of the Annotation and Scope Note, and searches of various fields for chemicals. These searches assume that users are familiar with MeSH terms and using the MeSH Browser. Wouldn’t it be great if you could find MeSH terms directly from your text such as an abstract or grant summary? MeSH on Demand has been developed in close collaboration among MeSH Section, NLM Index Section, and the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications to address this need.
Use MeSH on Demand to find MeSH terms relevant to your text up to 10,000 characters. One of the strengths of MeSH on Demand is its ease of use without any prior knowledge of the MeSH vocabulary and without any downloads. From the MeSH on Demand homepage, add your text, such as an abstract, into the box labeled “Text to be Processed.” Then, click the “Find MeSH Terms” button. Please read the Helpful Hints section of the homepage to improve your results.
For example, the abstract below contains the phrase “treatment-resistant depression.” The relevant MeSH Heading found for that concept is Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant. MeSH on Demand finds MeSH Headings, Publication Types, and Supplementary Concepts, but not Qualifiers (Subheadings). Select the green question mark button next to the MeSH term or the MeSH term itself to open a new window with the MeSH Browser for that MeSH term.
Please note the Disclaimer that these MeSH terms are machine generated by MTI and do not reflect any human review. While the results will be different from human-generated indexing, MeSH on Demand does find relevant MeSH terms that can help jump-start finding MeSH terms in your search area. NLM welcomes your feedback on MeSH on Demand and MTI. Please send comments and questions to NLM Customer Service with “MeSH on Demand” in the subject box. NLM also looks forward to seeing your ideas for other helpful tools to utilize the MeSH vocabulary and NLM resources more easily. Please contact NLM at firstname.lastname@example.org.
In the summer of 1946, an Oklahoma newspaper editor sent a young reporter to complete a story on a state psychiatric hospital, where he found neglected, half-naked inmates, crowded together in filthy, dilapidated buildings, and fed on rotten food. He soon went back, taking along a photographer, and then he went to visit Oklahoma’s other state mental hospitals. His blistering series of newspaper articles about the institutions launched a grassroots reform movement: less than a year later, the state legislature voted huge budget increases for state hospitals, restructured the state hospital administration, and re-wrote the state’s commitment laws.
The young journalist was Mike Gorman (1913–1989). His work in Oklahoma earned him a Lasker Award in 1948, and changed the course of his career. Several decades later he would be called “the country’s greatest modern missionary for mental health.” Mike Gorman’s papers are now online at the National Library of Medicine’s Profiles in Science Web site, an NLM digital project that provides online access to the archival collections of more than 30 Nobel Laureates and other leading innovators in scientific and medical fields. The presentation features correspondence, photographs, speeches and addresses given by Gorman, speeches he wrote for members of Congress and several U.S. Presidents, along with published articles and reports from the Gorman collection. Visitors to the site can view his first series of articles for the Daily Oklahoman, drafts of speeches Gorman wrote for Presidents Truman and Kennedy, and the public service announcements issued by the Citizens for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure.
Gorman’s Oklahoma experience taught him that newspaper exposés alone would not produce substantive changes. Public attention to social problems faded quickly, and entrenched social and political practices did not change without constant agitating from outside. Gorman would spend the rest of his life providing that agitation: gathering the facts about mental illness and other diseases; speaking to governors, legislators, professional groups, and the public; testifying to Congressional appropriations committees; and writing books and articles.
Gorman came to Washington, D.C. in 1951 to be a member of President Truman’s Commission on the Health Needs of the Nation, and in 1953 became executive director of the National Committee Against Mental Illness, a lobbying and advocacy organization founded by philanthropist and health care activist Mary Lasker. In that post, he became perhaps America’s best known lobbyist and publicist in the crusade for psychiatric hospital reform and the community mental health center movement. Gorman played a key role in shaping many of the social programs of the Kennedy and Johnson administrations, including the Mental Retardation Facilities and Community Mental Health Centers Construction Act of 1963. During the 1970s and 1980s he also directed two other advocacy groups, Citizens for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure, which helped coordinate a highly successful national hypertension education and screening program, and the National Initiative for Glaucoma Control.
New on REMM, April, 2014:
- Key changes are noted below.
- Many more updates and changes appear throughout REMM.
- Managing Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS): Interactive tool: completely redesigned, with clinical assessments, treatment suggestions, suggestion for referral venues
- Top 10 Items for Radiation Emergencies: new page
- How to Perform a Radiation Survey
- Target Levels for Decontamination of People
- Biodosimetry Bibliography: new page, improved navigation, many new references
- Radiation Units and Conversions: new interactive tools for unit conversions
- Understanding Radiation: new videos incorporated and new sections
- Radiological Dispersal Device: new guidance about safety and response perimeters
- Training and Education: new offerings from several US agencies
- Multimedia Library: new elements in many sections
- Emergency Contacts: updated for many US government agencies
- REMM bibliography: many new entries
New on Mobile REMM, April 2014, App Version 2.0.1:
- App has been completely redesigned for easier use and faster navigation
- Dose Estimator: faster data entry for vomiting and lymphocyte depletion kinetics tools
- New tools from REMM now available on Mobile REMM
- Scarce Resources for Interactive Triage Tool for Use after IND Detonation
- SALT triage system for radiation emergencies
- Updated emergency contact information
- Mobile platform compatibility updated
- iPhone and Androids compatibility remains up to date.
- Newer BlackBerry operating system, BlackBerry 10, is now supported; but older ones (BlackBerry 7 OS and earlier) are not.
The REMM Team strongly suggests updating any versions of REMM previously downloaded to computers, USB drives, or mobile devices.
Representatives of the US National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the Wellcome Trust recently signed a memorandum of understanding to work together to make thousands of complete back issues of historically-significant biomedical journals freely available online. The terms of the MOU include a donation of £750,000 ($1.2 million) to the NLM that will support coordination of the three-year project to scan original materials from NLM’s collection at the article level, and Wellcome’s work to secure copyright clearances and permissions for electronic deposit from publishers. NLM will undertake conservation of the original material to ensure its preservation for future generations. Key journals charting the development of modern medicine over the last 150 years will be digitized in their entirety and made available on the National Institutes of Health life sciences repository PubMed Central (PMC) and its European counterpart, Europe PMC. The project builds on the Medical Journal Backfiles Digitization Project (2004-2010) and will contribute substantially to the current PMC archive of over 3 million articles from medical journals.
Part of the project will concentrate on mental health journals, supporting a major archive digitization program also being undertaken by the Wellcome Trust. Journals to be digitized include Mental Health, Mental Hygiene, and the Journal of Psychological Medicine and Mental Pathology. Other journals have been selected for their general relevance, such as the Indian Medical Gazette, the British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgical Review and the Transactions of the Epidemiology Society of London. In addition to images and searchable text, NLM will also create article-level citations for PubMed. Digitization is expected to start in late 2014 and to be completed by 2017. Material will be added to PMC and Europe PMC as it is digitized.
The Wellcome Library is one of the world’s leading libraries of medical history, housing 2.5 million items of extraordinary range and diversity, and a growing collection of contemporary biomedical information resources relating to consumer health, popular science, biomedical ethics and the public understanding of science. The Wellcome Library is part of the Wellcome Trust, a global charitable foundation dedicated to achieving extraordinary improvements in human and animal health. It supports the brightest minds in biomedical research and the medical humanities. The Trust’s breadth of support includes public engagement, education and the application of research to improve health. It is independent of both political and commercial interests.
The National Library of Medicine has announced the launch of a new user interface for the IndexCat database, which offers a faster response time to searches; full record displays in search results; and record sorting and refinements. NLM uses the same search engine for its main Web site, as well as MedlinePlus, MedlinePlus en Español, the Directory of the History of Medicine Collections search engine, and the History of Medicine Finding Aids Consortium.
IndexCat simultaneously searches the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General’s Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and eVK2 for medieval English texts; and LocatorPlus. A post in the NLM Circulating Now blog offers additional information on IndexCat. There also are a number of new and revised FAQs and Help pages to assist with searching IndexCat. Additional details and illustrations are available in the most recent edition of the NLM Technical Bulletin.
The current trend in evaluation reporting is toward fewer words and more images. There are a number of companies that offer high-quality, royalty free photographs at minimal cost. Stockfresh, for example, charges as little as $1 per image. However, no-cost is even better than low-cost. Freelancers Union, a nonprofit organization dedicated to assisting freelance workers, recently published a list of the best websites for no-cost images. If you are looking for free images for your presentations or reports, check out their article, which also describes the difference between public domain, royalty-free and Creative Commons-licensed images.
NLM has released a new Drug Information Subject Guide as the latest update in its subject guide series. These guides are based on the most frequently asked questions, and are starting points for health professionals, researchers, librarians, students, and others. Other published guides in this NLM series are about finding:
A Genetics/Genomics subject guide will be available later this year. NLM will develop more subject guides as needed. NLM welcomes comments, questions, and suggestions about all of the guides.
Three hundred four (304) new MeSH Headings were added in 2014. Forty-eight (48) MeSH Headings were either changed or deleted and replaced with more up-to-date terminology. Three new publication types have been introduced for 2014 MeSH:
- Dataset: This publication type is defined as “An organized collection of values stored permanently in a formalized manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing.” This publication type will not be used in combination with any other publication type as it is not to be used for journal articles that contain or produce datasets as part of the publication (including Supplemental Materials). Rather, it will be used on citations to items that are stand-alone descriptions of the metadata of a particular dataset.
- Observational Study: The scope note defines this publication type as “A clinical study in which participants may receive diagnostic, therapeutic, or other types of interventions, but the investigator does not assign participants to specific interventions (as in an interventional study).” This publication type should not be confused with the MeSH Heading “Observation” which is used for a scientific method. There is a related new MeSH Heading “Observational Studies as Topic,” which is used for general design, methodology, economies, etc. of observational studies.
- Pragmatic Clinical Trial: This publication type refers to “Randomized clinical trials that compare interventions in clinical settings and which look at a range of effectiveness outcomes and impacts.” There is a related new MeSH Heading, “Pragmatic Clinical Trial as Topic,” which is used for general design, methodology, economics, etc. of pragmatic clinical trials.
Additional details are available by consulting the 2014 online Introduction to MeSH and the NLM Technical Bulletin.
The NIH Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) initiative has released a Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) to support a U24 resource award for Development of an NIH BD2K Data Discovery Index Coordination Consortium. The purpose of this FOA is to create a consortium to begin development of an NIH Data Discovery Index (DDI) to allow discovery, access, and citation of biomedical data. Letters of intent to apply are due by February 6, 2014, and completed applications are due by March 6, 2014. Budgets are limited to $2,000,000 in direct costs per year but must reflect the actual needs of the proposed project. The maximum project period is three years.
As part of the NIH Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) initiative, the DDI seeks to fulfill the recommendation from the Data and Informatics Working Group (DIWG) Report to the Advisory Council to the Director to “Promote Data Sharing Through Central and Federated Catalogues.” The awardee in response to this FOA will constitute a DDI Coordination Consortium (DDICC, U24) to conduct outreach, fund small pilot projects, manage communication with stakeholders, constitute and coordinate Task Forces to study relevant questions related to access, discoverability, citation for all biomedical data and assure community engagement in the development, testing, and validation of an NIH DDI. Part of this effort will be to assemble a user interface (website) through which the results of development and testing of models for an NIH DDI may be communicated.