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Nine Events of Instruction

In the 1960s, educational psychologist Robert Gagne described what he termed the Nine Events of Instruction. These events are focused on what the teacher or trainer does to facilitate learning. Which of these do you do? Are there any you could add that would improve your class?

1. Gain attention! Hook the learners in with an interesting question or scenario, a video, or something unexpected.
2. Describe the goal. Show students what they’ll gain from the session and what to expect.
3. Stimulate recall of prior knowledge. Show how this new information is connected to something students already know or can do. You can connect to prior knowledge in the same field, or even something from popular culture.
4. Present the material. This is where the bulk of the content is presented. Use questions, interactions, stories, or multimedia to liven it up.
5. Provide guidance for learning. Use leading questions or provide discussion opportunities.
6. Elicit performance. Give the students a chance to apply what they’ve learned and practice the new skills or knowledge.
7. Provide feedback. Allow the learner to evaluate their own performance, give or receive peer feedback, or evaluate their practice.
8. Assess performance. Determine if the goal has been met by evaluating a formal assessment (such as a quiz) or an informal assessment (by observation).
9. Enhance retention and transfer. Have students teach others, provide more opportunities for practice, or transfer knowledge to a new situation.