Archive for the ‘Practical Evaluation’ Category
The Nielsen Norman Group (NNG) conducts research and publishes information about user experience with interfaces. NNG was an early critic of the troubled “healthcare.gov” web site: “Healthcare.gov’s Account Setup: 10 Broken Usability Guidelines.” recent post (“Talking with participants during a usability test”) provided tips for facilitating usability tests that could be very useful whenever you’re facilitating a discussion or conducting an observation. When in doubt about whether to speak to a participant, count to 10 and decide whether to say something. Consider using “Echo” or “Boomerang” or “Columbo” approaches:
- Echo–repeat the last words or phrase, using an interrogatory tone.
- Boomerang–formulate a nonthreatening question that “pushes” a user’s comment back and causes them to think of a response for you, such as “What would you do if you were on your own?”
- Columbo–be smart but don’t act that way, as in the “Columbo” TV series from the 1960’s and 1970’s starring Peter Falk.
The full article “Talking with participants during a usability test” provides audio examples of these techniques that you can listen to. You can find a large amount of additional information about usability testing on the Nielsen Norman Group’s web site, such as “How to Conduct Usability Studies” and “Usability 101: Introduction to Usability.”
So how are those New Year’s resolutions going?
Many of us like to start the year resolving to clean up some part of our lives. Our diet. Our spending habits. The five years of magazine subscriptions sitting by our recliner.
Here’s another suggestion: Resolve to clean up “chart junk” in the charts you add to PowerPoint presentations or written reports.
Now I can pack information into a bar chart with the best of them. But it is no longer in vogue to clutter charts with data labels, gridlines, and detailed legends. This is not just a fashion statement, either. Design experts point out that charts should make their point without the inclusion of a bunch of distracting details. If the main point of your chart is not visually obvious, you either have not designed it correctly or you are presenting a finding that is not particularly significant.
So the next time you create a chart, consider these suggestions:
- Use your title to communicate the main point of the chart. Take a tip from newspaper headlines and make your title a complete sentence.
- Don’t use three-dimensional displays. It interferes with people’s comprehension of charts.
- Ditch the gridlines or make them faint so they don’t clutter the view.
- Use contrast to make your point. Add a bright color to the bar or line that carries the main point and use gray or another faint color for the comparison bars or lines.
- Be careful in picking colors. Use contrasting colors that are distinguishable to people with colorblindness. If your report is going to be printed, be sure the contrast still shows up when presented in black-and-white.
- Consider not using data labels, or just label the bar or line associated with your main point.
- Remove legends and apply legend labels inside the bars or at the end of lines.
For more comprehensive information on eliminating chart junk, check out this article:
Evergreen S, Mezner C. Design principles for data visualization in evaluation. In Azzam T, Evergreen S. (eds). Data visualization, part 2. New Directions in Evaluation. Winter 2013, 5-20.
Last week I attended an excellent webinar session presented by Kylie Hutchinson of Community Solutions Planning & Evaluation about the vast and often jargony world of evaluation terminology. As part of Hutchison’s research she consulted three online evaluation glossaries* and counted thirty six different definitions of evaluation methods within them. What accounts for so much variation? Common reasons include the perspectives and language used by different sectors and funders such as education, government, and non-profit organizations.
A helpful tip when working with organizations on evaluation projects is to ask to see copies of documents such as annual reports, mission and vision statements, strategic planning, and promotional materials to learn more about what language they use to communicate about themselves. This will assist you in knowing if modifications in assessment terminology language are needed, and can help guide you with discussions on clarifying the organization’s purpose of the evaluation.
Hutchinson identified several common themes within the plethora of evaluation methods and created color-coded clusters of them within her Evaluation Terminology Map, which uses the bubbl.us online mind mapping program. She also created a freely available Evaluation Glossary app for use on both iPhone and Android mobile devices and has a web-based version under development. For additional resources to better understand health information outreach evaluation, be sure to visit our tools website at http://guides.nnlm.gov/oerc/tools.
* Two of the three online evaluation glossaries referenced are still available online
The 2nd Edition of the Planning and Evaluating Health Information Outreach Projects series of 3 booklets is now available online:
Getting Started with Community-Based Outreach (Booklet 1)
What’s new? More emphasis and background on the value of health information outreach, including its relationship to the Healthy People 2020 Health Communication and Health Information Technology topic areas
Planning Outcomes-Based Outreach Projects (Booklet 2)
What’s new? Focus on uses of the logic model planning tool beyond project planning, such as providing approaches to writing proposals and reports.
Collecting and Analyzing Evaluation Data (Booklet 3)
What’s new? Step-by-step guide to collecting, analyzing, and assessing the validity (or trustworthiness) of quantitative and qualitative data, using questionnaires and interviews as examples.
These are all available free to NN/LM regional offices and network members. To request printed copies, send an email to email@example.com.
Non-508 compliant pdf versions of all three booklets are available here: http://nnlm.gov/evaluation/guides.html#A2 .
The Planning and Evaluating Health Information Outreach series, by Cynthia Olney and Susan Barnes, supplements and summarizes material in Cathy Burroughs’ groundbreaking work from 2000, Measuring the Difference: Guide to Planning and Evaluating Health Information Outreach. Printed copies of Burroughs’ book are also available free—just send an email request to firstname.lastname@example.org.
“There’s probably a better way of doing this.” How many times have you muttered this statement while using Excel to analyze a database download or a spreadsheet of class evaluation data?
Or maybe you would like to try your hand at some of the hot new trends in data visualization, such as data dashboards or infographics, but find that your lack of familiarity with Excel holds you back.
Whether you are a novice or experienced Excel user, you should check out Emery Evaluation’s “Excel for Evaluation” web page (http://emeryevaluation.com/excel/) with its series of videos demonstrating efficient ways to use Excel for data analysis and reporting. These videos, created by Ann Emery, are 1-4 minutes long and demonstrate a single Excel function, such as the formula to recode data or a technique for merging data from two separate files. The videos do use the 2010 version of Excel, so if you are working with an earlier version, some of the videos may not directly apply. Her videos are organized around the steps of good data analysis: importing your data, organizing and cleaning the data, recoding, looking for patterns, calculating statistics, and creating charts.
I’ve been using Excel since 1988, and I STILL always feel as though I’m taking the long way around to completing an analysis. These videos confirmed that I was, indeed, right. There are better ways to use Excel, and Emery’s videos show how.
In survey design workshops, we are often asked if rating scales designed to measure respondents’ opinions and attitudes should have an odd number of points, including a neutral mid-point (i.e., “Neither agree or disagree”); or if it’s better to have an even number of points, without a mid-point. Our answer, which probably frustrates our participants to no end, is “it depends.” You have to clearly think through what a “neutral” answer means and choose accordingly. Here is a link to a clever blog entry by Jane Davidson that makes this point very well and gives you ways to think about how many points your rating scales should have:
Boxers or briefs? Why having a favorite response scale makes no sense
(There are some insightful readers’ comments to this blog post that you might find interesting as well.)
At the OERC, we recommend using evaluation questions as a foundation for evaluation projects. The questions are useful in developing data collection methods, analyzing data, and organizing evaluation reports. If you are planning a needs assessment, you can take advantage of a tip sheet that provides needs assessment questions for you: The 6Ds of Needs Assessments. This one-page document will help you identify the information needed to advocate for your project or design your program. The 6D’s of Needs Assessment was created by Kylie Hutchinson, principle evaluator for Community Solutions Planning and Evaluation.
On July 27, 2012 Stephanie Evergreen, eLearning Initiatives Director for the American Evaluation Association, gave a half-hour webinar about the Ignite approach to giving presentations. This approach involves a 5 minute presentation based on 20 slides that are each shown for 15 seconds. (Yes, this is similar to Pecha Kucha.) The American Evaluation Association, which is conducting a “Potent Presentations” initiative to help its members improve their reporting skills, has made the recording and slides for this great presentation available in its free AEA Public Library:
In her short, practical webinar, Stephanie demonstrated the Ignite approach with a great presentation about “Chart Junk Extraction”—valuable tips for creating streamlined, readable charts with maximized visual impact. Spend an enjoyable and enlightening few minutes viewing the fast-paced and interesting “Light Your Ignite Training Webinar”—you can even learn how to set your PowerPoint timer to move forward automatically every 15 seconds so that you can practice your Igniting!
“Utilizing grounded theory to explore the information-seeking behavior of senior nursing students.” Duncan V; Holtslander, L. J Med Lib Assoc 100(1) January 2012:20-27.
In this very practical article, the authors describe the steps they took to analyze qualitative data from written records that nursing students kept about their experiences with finding information in the CINAHL database. They point out that, although the ideal way to gather data about student information seeking behavior would be via direct observation, that approach is not always practical. Also, self-reporting via surveys and interviews may create bias because members of sample populations might “censor themselves instead of admitting an information need.” For this study, students were asked to document their search process using an electronic template that included “prompts such as resource consulted, reason for choice, terms searched, outcome, comments, and sources consulted (people).”
After reviewing these searching journals, the authors followed up with interviews.
The “Data analysis and interpretation” section of this article provides a clear, concise description of the grounded theory approach to analyzing qualitative data using initial, focused, and theoretical coding using the nVivo 8 software. [Note, as of this writing, the latest version is nVivo 10]
- Initial codes: “participants’ words were highlighted to create initial codes that reflected as closely as possible the participants’ own words.”
- Focused codes: “more directed, selective, and conceptual than word-by-word, line-by-line, and incident-by-incident coding.”
- Theoretical codes: focused codes were compared and contrasted “in order to develop the emerging theory of the information-seeking process.”
The authors reviewed the coding in follow-up interviews with participants to check the credibility of their findings: “The central theme that united all categories and explained most of the variation among the data was ‘discovering vocabulary.’” They recommend “teaching strategies to identify possible words and phrases to use” when searching for information.
You can do this even if you don’t have access to nVivo 8 software. Here’s an illustration: “Summarize and Analyze Your Data” from the OERC’s Collecting and Analyzing Evaluation Data booklet.
In health information outreach, one of the most common ways to connect with the public is through a health fair. Recent literature has shown that school health fairs improve health knowledge in the short term (Freedman, 2010) and health fairs can be a valuable way to enhance public awareness of specific health professions or services (Stamat, Injety, Pohlod, & Aguwa, 2008). Additionally, participating in health fairs as exhibitors is a manageable outreach activity that can help to address health literacy and health information inequalities in specific communities (Pomerantz, Muhammad, Downey & Kind, 2010). For non-profit health organizations and medical libraries, health fairs provide important outreach opportunities and ways to reach beyond a traditional sphere of users. Exhibitors can share targeted information for a population demographic or demonstrate new online resources and applications for health information access and health literacy.
Even though the aforementioned studies show positive trends for short-term effects of health fairs on health information and health literacy, it can be difficult to evaluate long-term effects or to determine participant behavior changes from attending health fairs. As such, it can also be difficult to justify the staff time and monetary expenses for hosting a health fair. However, results from a recent research study show that health fairs have potential to provide a foundation for ongoing and integrated outreach. In a study conducted in Indiana in 2006-2007, health professional contact 10 and 15 months following a health fair (to determine health fair effectiveness) led to more in-depth and personalized involvement with participants that resulted in greater changes in health behavior and attitudes. Librarians can use health fairs to begin an engagement process with targeted individuals. Additionally, librarians can evaluate health fairs using similar pre and post test methods as this study used, but focus more on assessing changes in health information literacy and knowledge from health fair participants.
The study published in 2011 evaluated both the short-term and long-term health effects of attending a health fair, and assessed the impact of personalized follow-up health counseling sessions for select participants. The Indiana Black and Minority Health Fair included more than 100 health education booths and addressed a variety of health topics, including prevention and screening, as well as general healthy living. Sponsored by the Indiana State Department of Health, the annual health fair is part of an ongoing effort to develop health literacy skills. The study was constructed as a pre-post test evaluation with baseline data collection at the health fair and then again after 10 and 15 months. All participants from the original sample group received health education materials between the 10 and 15-month posttests, and a select group participated in health counseling sessions with a registered nurse. The researcher designed the study to explore a paradigm where, “health fair encounters were aimed to translate from episodic experiences to long-term educational experiences via 15-month follow-up health counseling sessions in a partnership among the state government…local government…and a university…” (p. 898).
With a stationed booth at the health fair, the researchers evaluated a baseline level of willing participants’ health information knowledge through a pretest. In this study, the pretest was a 16-item short-form questionnaire. This questionnaire was adapted from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System questionnaire and included questions on “perceived body weight, vigorous and moderate physical activity, TV/video watching hours, fruit and vegetable consumption, tobacco use, and perceived health status” (p.899). The pretest evaluated the major health indicators and behaviors of health fair participants.
The first posttest was conducted 10 months later in a follow-up mail survey to all health fair participants in the form of a 99-item long-form questionnaire, also adapted from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. This round had a response rate of 47%, with 266 participants responding. This posttest evaluated if attending the health fair had any short-term effects on the participant’s health knowledge and other health habits. It looked at the “participants’ health knowledge, eating behaviors, sedentary behaviors, exercise self-efficacy, exercise goal setting and adherence, and changes in health status” (p. 899). Results from this posttest showed that more people perceived themselves as overweight (an increase of almost 7% from the baseline measure) and fewer people watched TV/videos 4 hours or more on a usual weekday (a drop of almost 22%) 10 months following the health fair. These behavioral changes were not matched by any other changes in notable health behaviors or conditions included in the questionnaires.
This lack of health behavior change is an important aspect of this study, and a revealing situation for librarians. Health fairs may not produce immediate changes but they can provide an educational space where health professionals and librarians can connect with at-risk health populations and start a conversation about their health behaviors. This potential was seen in the intervention step of the study from which participants’ health information materials and personalized counseling over the course of three to four months offered another opportunity to connect health information professionals with targeted populations.
All participants from the posttest received mailed health educational materials, and this was considered the comparison group. A small subset agreed to personalized health counseling by a registered nurse via phone. The intervention group set at least one health goal and received four counseling phone calls over the course of 12-16 weeks. Then all comparison and intervention group participants received a second posttest questionnaire 15 months after the health fair (the same 99-item long form questionnaire from the first posttest). This second posttest evaluated the effect of the personalized follow-up health counseling sessions, as well as the effect of receiving the health information materials. Of the initial 266 participants, 188 followed through with the second posttest. The second posttest showed some increases in self-reported measures of general health status, with the percentage of overweight or obese participants decreased in both the intervention and comparison groups. Additionally, participants in the intervention group showed a significant increase in choosing leaner meats, and showed improvements in exercise self-efficacy, exercise goal setting and adherence, and health knowledge. However, there was little significant gain in health knowledge, as the emphasis in the intervention group was on addressing individuals’ health concerns. A takeaway message from this study is that long-term follow-up interventions have the potential to provide health support over a longer period of time, which can increase the likelihood of healthy outcomes and health literacy.
Yet, this study shows that health fairs can be an important stepping-stone for health information outreach and evaluation. Due to the inherent nature of health fairs, they are typically a one-time interaction, and participants run the risk of information overload in unfocused health fairs. Librarians can use health fairs as an initial contact setting for population groups, and develop an ongoing relationship by providing consistent and meaningful health information materials and personalized outreach to former health fair participants. Furthermore, evaluations of this ongoing outreach in the form of written or online questionnaires, in-person focus groups, or even individual case studies, can be compelling support for continued participation in health fairs.
For the long-term, Seo also states that the findings of this study have other implications for health promotion and education, in particular, “explor[ing] the possibility of utilizing BMHF [Black and Minority Health Fair] participants as lay health workers or social support groups in their own communities to address low health literacy and high-risk lifestyles in this population” (p. 903). In other words, you can reach new (and possibly elusive) groups of people or target small specific high-risk populations by investing in a small group of participants over a long-term period, as initiated by a simple health fair. Short-term and long-term evaluation can complement this long-term outreach program by evaluating changes in teaching methods, changes in health information literacy within communities, or even show differences over time in health knowledge and health information literacy for the lay health workers. This study shows how heath information professionals can build long-term relationships with targeted populations by using health fairs as an initial contact point. With coordinated evaluation strategies, health information professionals can ensure that their long-term health outreach activity is consistently meaningful, relevant, and adaptive to their targeted populations’ needs.